• Working Papers

The Citizenship Advantage: Immigrant Socioeconomic Attainment across Generations in the Age of Mass Migration. Catron, Peter

Scholars who study immigrant economic progress often point to the success of Southern and Eastern Europeans who entered in the early 20th century and draw inferences about whether today's immigrants will follow a similar trajectory. However, little is known about the mechanisms that allowed for European upward advancement. This article begins to fill this gap by analyzing how naturalization policies influenced economic success of immigrants across generations. Specifically, I create new panel datasets that follow immigrants and their children across complete-count US censuses to understand the economic consequences of citizenship attainment. I find that naturalization raised occupational attainment for the first generation that then allowed children to have greater educational attainment and labor market success. I argue that economic progress was conditioned by political statuses for European-origin groups during the first half of the twentieth century – a mechanism previously missed by contemporary research...

Is immigrant social mobility driven by the people or the place? The case of Irish Americans in the early twentieth century. Connor, Dylan

Proponents of restrictive immigration policies often claim that families arriving with fewer skills and resources will be less socially mobile. This claim is challenging to test as pre-migration characteristics are not easily separated from post-migration experiences. This article uses unique multigenerational data on Irish Americans in the early twentieth century, before and after migration, to study how source country background and settlement context affect the occupational and schooling attainment of the children of immigrants. These results show modest effects of pre-migration origins on second generation outcomes. The reception context, in contrast, as it relates to educational acquisition and labor market opportunity appears to be more important for intergenerational economic progress. These findings suggest that childhood environments may be of greater priority than the selectivity of immigration for second generation attainment.

El reclutamiento de trabajadores temporales mexicanos para Estados Unidos: Infraestructura burocrática, industria de la migración y economía del engaño en el programa de visas H-2. Hernández-León, Rubén; Sandoval Hernández, Efrén

En este trabajo utilizamos los conceptos de infraestructura, industria de la migración y economía del engaño para analizar el programa estadunidense de visas H-2 para trabajadores migrantes temporales.  Creado en 1943 para importar trabajadores caribeños, el programa H-2 está en la actualidad controlado por reclutadores quienes enganchan principalmente a migrantes mexicanos.  Los conceptos de infraestructura e industria de la migración nos permiten concentrar el análisis en el conjunto de instituciones, actores y reglas encargadas de producir y organizar la movilidad migratoria y que simultáneamente ejercen funciones de intermediación, facilitación y control de la migración y los migrantes. Argumentamos que el programa H-2 es una infraestructura burocratizada, es decir, gubernamental, en torno a la cual se ha creado una industria de la migración integrada por agencias de abogados, firmas dedicadas al reclutamiento y contratación, compañías de transporte encargadas de la movilidad de los migrantes, hoteleros y...

Survival and integration: Kachin social networks and refugee management regimes in Kuala Lumpur and Los Angeles. Palmgren, Pei

How do refugees establish social networks and mobilise social capital in different contexts throughout a multi-stage migration process? Migrant social network literature explains how migrants accumulate social capital and mobilise resources in and between origin and destination but provides limited answers regarding how these processes unfold during refugee migrations involvingprotracted stays in intermediate locations and direct interaction with state agents. Drawing from ethnographic fieldwork with Kachin refugees in Kuala Lumpur and Los Angeles, I address these gaps by comparing refugee social networks in two sites of a migration process. Distinguishingbetween networks of survival and networks of integration, I argue that differences in their form and functions stem from their interactions with local refugee management regimes, which are shaped by broader state regulatory contexts. In both locations, these networks and regimes feed off each other to manage the refugee migration process, with key roles play...

The Cream of the Crop? Inequality and Migrant Selectivity in Ireland During the Age of Mass Migration. Connor, Dylan

During the Age of Mass Migration (1850-1913), over 30 million people moved from Europe to North America. European policy-makers feared that migration would attract the “best and brightest” workers. I study the selectivity of migration from Ireland, the European country with the highest emigration rate, using a new longitudinal dataset of 300,000 migrants and non-migrants. I find that migrants tended to come from mid-status, farming families (“intermediately selected”). Yet migration within Ireland drew from both lower and higher status families. Children who were more likely to inherit valuable land were less likely to leave their home county.

Beyond Prejudice: Structural Xenophobic Discrimination Against Refugees. Achiume, E. Tendayi

In this Article, I argue that the UN Refugee Agency's global policy for addressing foreignness or xenophobic discrimination is inadequate. By focusing narrowly on harm to refugees resulting from explicit anti-foreigner prejudice, it ignores pervasive structural xenophobic discrimination — rights violations that result from the disproportionate effect of facially neutral measures on refugees, due to their status as foreigners. I argue that the international human rights law that the UN Refugee Agency has used to compel regulation of explicit prejudice-based xenophobic discrimination also requires regulation of structural xenophobic discrimination. As a result, the UN Refugee Agency should adopt an inclusive approach that targets both forms of xenophobic discrimination.

Syria, Cost-sharing, and the Responsibility to Protect Refugees. Achiume, E. Tendayi

The Syrian refugee crisis may soon be the largest since the Second World War. This Article is the first to analyze the devastating fallout of this crisis, and to propose a novel approach to a perennial international law problem at its center. Nearly all of the more than 4 million refugees that have fled the conflict in Syria are concentrated in five countries in the region. These countries do not have the resources to sustain these refugees and there is no principled basis for the current distribution of the responsibility of protecting Syrian refugees. Instead, geo-graphic proximity to conflict and porousness of borders remain the primary determinants of which nations bear the heaviest cost. The resulting distribution of refugees threatens Syrian lives, regional stability and international security. Despite the gravity of the Syrian refugee crisis, however, states can mitigate it if they cooperate to share the cost of protecting these refugees. Regrettably international refugee law offers no basis for achiev...

Made in America? Immigrant Occupational Mobility in the First Half of the Twentieth Century. Catron, Peter

Assimilation research largely assumes that Southern and Eastern European immigrants achieved assimilation due to job ladders within manufacturing firms in the first half of the twentieth century. But this literature has never tested these claims and often acknowledges that little is known about whether Italians and Slavs experienced upward mobility. Did manufacturing allow for the upward advancement among European-origin groups? Using unique datasets containing employment histories in three manufacturing companies – A.M. Byers Company, Pullman-Standard Manufacturing, and Ford Motor Company - between 1900 and 1950, this article is the first to analyze occupational mobility within factories among European-origin groups. Results suggest that organizational structures within firms through the formation of internal labor markets did little to counter or prevent other forces that kept migrants from achieving upward mobility.  Migrants ended their careers within firms where they began – positions at the bottom of th...

Migrant Transnational Participation: How Citizen Inclusion and Government Engagement Matter for Local Democratic Development in Mexico. Duquette-Rury, Lauren

Contemporary debates on the relationship between migration and development focus extensively on how migrant remittances affect the economies of sending countries. Yet remittances also produce dynamic political consequences in migrants' origin communities, but receive less attention in scholarly accounts. Emigration and income earned abroad create political opportunities for migrant groups to participate in the provision of public services with the sending state in their hometowns. This article examines the conditions under which the transnational coproduction of public goods between organized migrants and public agencies at origin shapes democratic governance by focusing on the organizational variation in partnerships across time and space. First, the paper argues that local citizen inclusion and government engagement interact to determine four different types of coproduction: corporatist, fragmented, substitutive and synergetic. Second, using four comparative case studies based on fieldwork in three Mexican ...

Modes of Incorporation: A Conceptual and Empirical Critique. Waldinger, Roger; Catron, Peter

Entering the debate over segmented assimilation, this paper seeks to refocus discussion on a core, but neglected claim: that inter-group disparities among immigrant offspring derive from differences in a contextual feature shared by immigrant and immigrant descendants: a nationality's mode of incorporation.  The paper engages in both theoretical and empirical assessment.  We critically examine the concept of mode of incorporation, demonstrating that its operational implications have not been correctly understood; consequently, the core hypothesis has never been appropriately tested.  The second part of the paper implements those tests, making use of the Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Survey.  We do so by using nationality as a proxy for mode of incorporation, systematically contrasting more advantaged against less advantaged nationalities.    We show: (a) that tests systematically varying modes classified as more or less advantageous yield inconsistent outcomes; (b) that positive or negative modes of inc...

A National Study of Access to Counsel in Immigration Court.. Eagly, Ingrid; Shafer, Steven

Although immigrants have a right to be represented by counsel in immigration court, it has long been the case that the government has no obligation to provide an attorney for those who are unable to afford one. Recently, however, a broad coalition of public figures, scholars, advocates, courts, and philanthropic foundations have begun to push for the establishment of a public defender system for poor immigrants facing deportation. Yet the national debate about appointing defense counsel for immigrants has proceeded with limited information regarding how many immigrants currently obtain attorneys and the efficacy and efficiency of such representation.This Article presents the results of the first national study of access to counsel in United States immigration courts. Drawing on data from over 1.2 million deportation cases decided between 2007 and 2012, we find that only 37% of all immigrants, and a mere 14% of detained immigrants, secured representation. Only 2% of immigrants obtained pro bono representation ...

Remote Adjudication in Immigration. Eagly, Ingrid

This Article reports the findings of the first empirical study of the use of televideo technology to remotely adjudicate the immigration cases of litigants held in detention centers in the United States. Comparing the outcomes of televideo and in-person cases in federal immigration courts, it reveals an outcome paradox: detained televideo litigants were more likely than detained in-person litigants to be deported, but judges did not deny respondents' claims in televideo cases at higher rates. Instead, these inferior results were associated with the fact that detained litigants assigned to televideo courtrooms exhibited depressed engagement with the adversarial process — they were less likely to retain counsel, to apply to remain lawfully in the United States, or to seek an immigration benefit known as voluntary departure. Drawing on interviews of stakeholders and court observations from the highest-volume detained immigration courts in the country, this Article advances several explanations for why televideo ...

Ethnic Mobilization among Korean Dry Cleaners. Thomas, Ward F; Ong, Paul

Korean immigrants in the U.S. rely heavily on ethnic resources to start small businesses.  Ethnic resources include business networks and knowledge, start-up capital, and access to labor power that are embedded in networks of family, friends, and co-ethnics.  This paper shows how Korean dry cleaners in Southern California used ethnic resources to mobilize in response to an environmental policy initiated by the South Coast Air Quality Management District (AQMD).  While Korean immigrants used ethnic resources to start dry cleaning businesses, they found themselves working with a toxic chemical.  In 2002, AQMD required dry cleaners in Southern California to convert to costly alternative machines by 2020.  Korean dry cleaners used ethnic-based collective action, particularly the Korean Dry Cleaning Association, as a means of fighting for regulatory concessions.  They also used ethnic resources to overcome cultural and linguistic barriers to facilitate the adoption of alternative cleaning machines in compliance wi...

Limits of Panethnicity: An Alternative Model of Group Formation. Borzorgmehr, Mehdi

Existing theories of panethnicity in the United States concentrate on Asian Americans and Latinos, two umbrella groups that originally coalesced during the 1960s Civil Rights era. Although the role played by the state is recognized as a central factor in panethnic development, we argue that this pivotal variable is heavily dependent on historical context. Through a case study of newly emerging ethnic minorities (Middle Eastern and South Asian Americans in the post-9/11 era), we reexamine existing theories of panethnicity at a time when the state plays a narrowly-targeted punitive role. Using an innovative methodology which draws on a wide range of novel sources, we document the way in which the ethnic “Arab” and religious “Muslim” labels have been reinforced at the expense of panethnic labels like “Middle Eastern” and “South Asian.” Accordingly, we develop an alternative model of group formation which prioritizes historical context and the role of the state.  

Cross-Space Consumption: Grassroots Transnationalism among Undocumented Chinese Immigrants in the United States. Zhou, Min; Li, Xiangyi

Drawing on existing studies of immigrant transnationalism, we develop a concept of the “social value of consumption” and use it to explain the phenomenon of cross-space consumption among international migrants. Based on a multi-sited ethnographic study of undocumented Chinese immigrants in New York and their family members in hometowns in Fuzhou, China, we find that, despite the vulnerabilities and precarious circumstances associated with the lack of citizenship rights in the host society, undocumented immigrants manage to realize the social value of consumption across national borders, and that they do so through conspicuous consumption, reciprocal consumption, agent-assisted consumption in their hometowns even without physical presence. As a type of grassroots transnationalism, cross-space consumption enables international migrants to take advantage of differences in economic development, currency exchange rates, and social structures between countries of destination and origin to maximize their expression ...

Entrepreneurship and Interracial Dynamics: A Case Study of Self-Employed Africans and Chinese in Guangzhou, China. Zhou, Min; Xu, Tao; Shenasi, Shabnam

Guangzhou is the most popular gateway city for African migration to China. Unlike stereotypical international migrants, Africans in Guangzhou are predominantly self-made entrepreneurs, doing business face-to-face with Chinese entrepreneurs who are predominantly internal migrants with truncated citizenship rights. African-Chinese encounters in local markets and residential neighborhoods offer a rare opportunity for studying interracial dynamics beyond the classic black-white dichotomy and traditional paradigm of ethnic entrepreneurship. In this paper, we draw from in-depth interviews and field observations to examine how interacting social forces shape interracial relations and mobility pathways for migrant entrepreneurs in an emerging city of opportunities. Our analyses suggest that interactions between African and Chinese entrepreneurs are economically interdependent and socioculturally contentious processes, shaping a myriad of intersecting identities and creating room for cooperation that transcends race, ...

Collective Remittances and Transnational Coproduction: The 3x1 Program for Migrants and Household Access to Public Goods in Mexico. Duquette-Rury, Lauren

Migrant hometown associations (HTAs) are mobilizing collective remittances to improve social welfare in their countries of origin. This paper assesses the effect of transnational coproduction of public goods in migrants' places of origin by studying the 3x1 Program for Migrants. The 3x1 Program is a national social spending program in which the Mexican local, state and federal government matches HTAs' collective remittances to improve public services through cross-border public-private partnerships. The statistical analysis across municipalities that do and do not participate in the 3x1 Program shows that coproduction improves citizens' access to public sanitation, drainage and water, although not electricity. Moreover, a negative and statistically significant interaction term between 3x1 Program expenditures and family remittances reveals a substitution effect: in the presence of transnational coproduction, migrant households are less likely to improve public goods using family remittance resources, but in t...

The Political Economy of Social Spending by Local Government: A Study of the 3x1 Program in Mexico. Simpser, Alberto; Duquette-Rury, Lauren; Hernandez Company, Jose A; Ibarra, Juan F

Social spending by central governments in Latin America has, in recent decades, become increasingly insulated from political manipulation. Focusing on the 3x1 Program in Mexico in 2002-2007, we show that social spending by local government is, in contrast, highly politicized. The 3x1 Program funds municipal public works, with each level of government – municipal, state, and central – matching collective remittances. Our analysis shows that 3x1 municipal spending is shaped by political criteria. First, municipalities time disbursements according to the electoral cycle. Second, when matching collective remittances, municipalities protect personnel salaries, instead adjusting budget items that are less visible to the public such as debt. Third, municipalities spend more on 3x1 projects when their partisanship matches that of the state government. Beyond the 3x1 Program, our findings highlight the considerable influence that increasing political and economic decentralization can have on local government incentive...

Duration of U.S. Stay and Body Mass Index among Latino and Asian Immigrants: A Test of Theoretical Pathways. Ro, Annie; Bostean, Georgiana

Studies find that longer-term immigrants have higher body mass index (BMI) than their more recently-arrived counterparts. Most interpretations of these health patterns by duration of U.S. residence rely on theories of immigrant integration; they posit that with increasing time in the United States, immigrants incorporate economically, socially, and culturally into aspects of U.S. society, and that these changes impact health. Few studies empirically examine whether these aspects of integration are indeed mediators of the association between duration of U.S. stay and BMI, and if their patterns differ across immigrant subgroups. This study examines data from the National Latino and Asian American Survey, using path analytic methods to simultaneously test six hypothesized mediators between duration and BMI: household income, English language ability, ethnic identity, family cohesion, acculturative stress and discrimination for both Latino and Asian immigrants, stratified by gender. We find little evidence for an...

The Cross-Border Connection: A Rejoinder. Waldinger, Roger

My paper responds to critiques by Susan Eckstein, Thomas Faist, Nina Glick Schiller, Peggy Levitt, and Jose Itzigsohn, all appearing in that same issue of Ethnic and Racial Studies

Socialization, Adaptation, Transnationalism and the Reproductive Behavior of Sub-Saharan African Migrants in France. Afulani, Patience A.; Asunka, Joseph

Background:  Migrants from Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) move from a region with high fertility to regions with low fertility. Yet very few studies have examined the reproductive behavior of international migrants from SSA. Objective: This study examines the roles of origin and destination socialization on the fertility and fertility ideals of SSA migrants in France. The study draws on measures of assimilation to systematically examine the effects of socialization and adaptation as well as transnationalism for the effects of sustained origin ties.  Methods: Data are from the TEO (“Trajectoires et Origines”) survey conducted in France (2008/2009). Logistic regression is used to examine current fertility (the odds of having a birth in the preceding five years), and Poisson regression is used to examine cumulative fertility (children ever born) and fertility ideals (reported ideal number of children in a family). Results: Controlling for sociodemographic factors, first-generation SSA migrants have higher fertility th...

Bangladeshi Muslims in Mississippi: Impression Management Based on the Intersectionality of Religion, Ethnicity, and Gender. Shams, Tahseen

The existing literature on Muslims in post-9/11 America largely focuses on cities where Muslims are organized and visible in large numbers. This interview-based qualitative study instead focuses on Bangladeshi Muslims in Mississippi. Using intersectionality and impressionmanagement as analytical tools, I explore how these individuals negotiate their identities to navigate interactions with Mississippi's predominantly white Christian society. I identify three patterns of impression management: distancing religious identity, highlighting ethnicity, and confronting stereotypes. These patterns provide insight into the conceptual tools used as well as the overarching racial dynamics in America.

Social Status Compensation: Variations on the Sending of Cultural Remittances among Chinese Overseas. Zhou, Min; Li, Xiangyi

Economic reform and social transformation in China since the late 1970s have revitalized diaspora-homeland ties and created new opportunities for transnational engagement. Chinese overseas have made significant contributions to their ancestral homeland's economic development via foreign direct investment and monetary remittances. They have also donated money to build symbolic structures, such as village gates, monuments, spiritual statues, and street altars, as well as cultural facilities, such as museums, cultural centers, libraries, and public parks, for collective consumption. We call these donations cultural remittances. While cultural remittances have left an indelible imprint on the landscape of migrant-sending hometowns in China, emigrants from different hometowns and resettled in different receiving countries vary in their sending of cultural remittances. This paper proposes a theoretical framework of social status compensation to explain the variations in this particular type of transnational practic...

The Politics of Cross-Border Engagement: Mexican Emigrants and the Mexican State. Waldinger, Roger

Reacting to migrants' many, ongoing involvements with their home communities, sending states have increasingly adopted policies designed to resolve the problems of citizens living abroad and to respond to expatriates' search for engagement, doing so in ways that best meet home state leaders' goals. This paper seeks to understand the factors shaping this interaction between sending states and emigrants abroad by studying two contrasting aspects of the Mexican experience – expatriate voting, a relatively new development, and provision of the matrícula consular, a long-standing component of traditional consular services, though one that has recently been transformed. Focusing on the complex set of interactions linking migrants, sending states, and receiving states, the paper identifies the key differences and similarities between these two policies. Both policies suffered from a capacity deficit inherent in sending state efforts to connect with nationals living in a territory that the home country cannot control...

Emigrants and Emigration in Historical Perspective. Waldinger, Roger

International migration from poorer to richer states gives emigrants resources that they can use to exercise leverage over home states, but also leaves them vulnerable to exploitation and discrimination in host states, conditions that activate interventions by emigration states seeking to influence and protect nationals abroad.  This paper traces the changing patterns of interaction between emigrants and emigration states over the past century and a half.  Many of the underlying incentives for emigration state intervention have remained stable, yielding similar state responses over this entire period.  By contrast, political changes in emigration states have altered the motivations of emigrants seeking to engage with the states and people left behind. Moreover, interactions between emigrants and emigration states are increasingly affected by international organizations and diffusion processes which, while present in earlier periods, lacked the influence exercised today.

Criminal Justice for Noncitizens: An Anlaysis of Variation in Local Enforcement. Eagly, Ingrid V

The growing centrality of “criminal aliens” to American immigration enforcement is one of the most significant historical shifts in the federal immigration system. However, little is known about how this dramatic restructuring of federal immigration priorities affects local criminal justice systems. Do noncitizens experience the same type of criminal justice as citizens? This Article seeks to answer this question by offering the first empirical study of how local criminal process is organized around immigration enforcement and citizenship status. It accomplishes this task by analyzing the criminal justice systems of the three urban counties that prosecute the highest number of noncitizens: Los Angeles County, California; Harris County, Texas; and Maricopa County, Arizona. Comparative review of law, procedure, and practice in these three counties reveals that immigration's interaction with criminal law has a far more powerful impact on local criminal practice than previously understood. Across all three counti...

Migration and Distributive Politics in an Indigenous Community: Oportunidades, Educational Surveillance and Migration Patterns in La Gloria. Gil-Garia, Oscar F.

Conditional Cash Transfers are a type of welfare program in which recipients receive funds contingent on certain actions or involvement in activities. Governments and multilateral banks frame conditional Cash Transfers as an effective poverty alleviation strategy that provokes greater civic engagement in the Global South. Mexico's Conditional Cash Transfer program,Oportunidades, includes an educational requirement for children. Studies ofOportunidadesfocus primarily on its impact on student enrollment, but lack research on the quality of education, retention and employment outcomes, and the impact on emigration. Drawing on three years of ethnographic research in a rural indigenous community in the Mexican state of Chiapas, I examine how teachers utilizeOportunidadesconditional requirements as a form of surveillance in the classroom. My findings reveal how emigration in La Gloria and its impact on student retention increases the vulnerability of teachers' employment. These pressures unintentionally help shape ...

Intergenerational Mobility among Immigrants and their Descendents. Luthra, Renee Reichl; Waldinger, Roger

This chapter provides an overview of the intergenerational progress of several major immigrant groups in the United States. Drawing on the most recent issues of the CPS, we provide estimates of poverty rates, educational attainment, and occupational attainment among the native born children of immigrants and compare these outcomes to similar estimates of the foreign born with the 1980 Census, allowing for a comparison across generations. We find improvement from the first to second generation for nearly every origin group. To more directly explore the transmission of socioeconomic status among immigrants, we directly link the parental and child outcomes of immigrants in Los Angeles, estimating the relationship between parents' and children's educational and occupational outcomes. We find considerable variation in the relationship between parent and child outcomes by origin group, although all immigrants show higher rates of intergenerational mobility than the children of the native born. Traditional assimilat...

Gideon's Migration. Eagly, Ingrid V.

For the past fifty years, immigration law has resisted integration ofGideon v. Wainwright's legacy of appointed counsel for the poor. Today, however, this resistance has given way toGideon's migration. At the level of everyday practice, criminal defense attorneys appointed pursuant to Gideon now advise clients on the immigration consequences of convictions, negotiate“immigration safe” plea bargains, defend clients charged with immigration crimes, and, in some model programs, even represent criminal defendants in immigration court. A formal right to appointed counsel in immigration proceedings has yet to be established, but proposals grounded in the constitution, statutes, and expanded government funding are gaining momentum.From the perspective of criminal defense, the changing role of Gideon-appointed counsel raises questions about the breadth and depth of immigration assistance that should developunder the defense umbrella. From the perspective of immigration legal services, the potential importation ...

The Bounded Polity: The Limits to Mexican Emigrant Political Participation. Roger, Waldinger; Thomas, Soehl

International migration yields pervasive cross-border social engagements, yet homeland political involvements are modest to minimum. This contrast reflects the ways in which the distinctive characteristics of expatriate political life impede participation in the polity that emigrants have left behind.  As polities are bounded, moving to the territory of a different state yields political detachment: diminishing awareness of home country political matters and weakened ties to the home state's electoral institutions.  To assess this argument, we use a representative survey of the Mexican born population in the US to analyze two critical conditions for participation in expatriate elections: emigrants' ability to demonstrate eligibility to vote and their knowledge about voting procedures. We find clear signs of detachment. Most Mexican emigrants are not in a position to participate in homeland politics.  Social ties, while pervasive, are associated with more knowledge only for the very small segment of the most e...

Designing Temporary Worker Programs. Motomura, Hiroshi

Some of the most vexing and persistent questions in U.S. immigration policy involve whether and how to design programs to admit temporary workers. These questions often prompt disagreement, even among those who otherwise agree on many aspects of immigration law and policy. To address these questions, this Article starts with a brief overview of temporary worker admissions in U.S. immigration law today, and then summarizes the main points typically made by supporters and skeptics. It next identifies key questions for those who would design temporary worker programs. The main part of the Article then explains how analysis of temporary worker programs generally reflects some combination of four broad perspectives. One perspective evaluates temporary worker programs as a force in the U.S. economy that benefits many citizens and permanent residents but disadvantages others. A second perspective views admission of temporary workers not only in comparison to its traditional foil — admission of permanent residents — ...

Engaging from Abroad: The Sociology of Emigrant Politics. Waldinger, Roger

This paper seeks to understand the politics of emigrants' home country engagements, with a particular focus on experiences in the United States.  Long-distance emigrant politics, I argue, reflects the paradox of migration, which while inherently entailing mobility, is impelled by the unequal, territorial containment of resources, a feature of social life that both gives the migrants new found leverage over states and peoples left behindandconstrains their capacity to maintain cross-border connections. As I will show, the processes by which international migrations extend political ties across states collide with those that progressively bring migrants into the polities of the states on which they have converged; consequently, over the long term, the pursuit of emigrant politics turns into immigrant politics, embedding the former foreigners in the political life of the country where they actually reside.

Gender, Bilingualism, and the Early Occupational Careers of Second-Generation Mexicans in the South. Hernandez-Leon, Ruben; Morando, Sarah J

Following two decades of Mexican migration to the southern United States, the second generation is entering the labor market.  We analyze the early occupational careers of fifty-eight second-generation young adults in Dalton, Georgia, a global carpet manufacturing center.  We find intergenerational occupational mobility, with children of Mexican immigrants deploying human capital skills to access better jobs than their parents.  However, the Mexican second generation faces opportunity ladders structured along gender lines, with women working in services and men laboring as bilingual supervisors and crew leaders in the carpet industry.  While bilingual skills play a critical role in the employment paths members of the second generation have started to chart, their use of bilingualism is also shaped by gender dynamics in the workplace.

Cross-Border Ties and Self-Rated Health Status for 1.5 and 2nd Generation Latinos in Southern California. Torres, Jacqueline M.

At the same time that health researchers have mostly ignored the potential for immigrant social networks to include cross-border ties, scholars of immigrant “transnationalism” have left health, as either cause or consequence of cross-border connections, largely unexamined. In this paper I take a step towards addressing this gap by first exploring the potential mechanisms linking cross-border ties to health outcomes for immigrants and their children in the 1.5 and 2nd generations. I then perform an analysis using the 2004 study of Immigration and Intergenerational Mobility in Metropolitan Los Angeles (IIMMLA), which includes data for 1273 young Latino adults from the 1.5 and 2nd immigrant generations. In ordered logistic regression models using a four-category measure of self-rated general health status, I find that those in the 1.5 generation who report simply having a close relative living in one's country of origin are 76% more likely to have better health overall health status compared with those with no p...

The Discretion That Matters: Federal Immigration Enforcement, State and Local Arrests, and the Civil-Criminal Line. Motomura, Hiroshi

This Article starts by analyzing the conventional wisdom, crystallized in the Ninth Circuit's 1983 decision in Gonzales v. City of Peoria, that state and local law enforcement officers do not require express federal authorization to make arrests for criminal violations of federal immigration law. This view, I explain, is based on overreliance on the line between civil and criminal. Even if a state or local arrest for an immigration crime still leaves federal prosecutors with substantial discretion not to bring criminal charges, it is highly likely that the federal government will force arrestees to leave the United States through the civil removal system, where much less discretion has been exercised. In immigration law, the discretion to arrest has been the discretion that matters. As long as this remains true, state and local arrest authority for immigration crimes reflects assumptions that have the potential to supersede much federal control over immigration enforcement. This consequence of state and local...

Making Legal: The Dream Act, Birthright Citizenship, and Broad-Scale Legalization. Motomura, Hiroshi

Some of the most controversial topics in immigration and citizenship law involve granting lawful immigration status—or citizenship itself—to persons who might otherwise be in the United States unlawfully. In this Article, I examine arguments for and against three ways to confer lawful status: (1) the DREAM Act, which would grant status to many unauthorized migrants who were brought to the United States as children; (2) the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution, under which almost all children born on U.S. soil are U.S. citizens; and (3) broad-scale proposals to grant lawful immigration status to a substantial percentage of the current unauthorized population. I first explain how arguments both for and against the DREAM Act reflect some mix of fairness and pragmatism. Though birthright citizenship seems different from the DREAM Act, the arguments are similar. I next show that although children figure much more prominently in the DREAM Act and birthright citizenship, similar patterns of argument apply to bro...

Who Belongs?: Immigration Outside the Law and the Idea of Americans in Waiting. Motomura, Hiroshi

This essay addresses a central question in immigration law and policy: when immigrants are unlawfully present in the United States, how if at all might they make persuasive claims to legalization or some other recognition in the form of immigration law status? Part I sets out an analytical framework that shows how viewing immigrants — including unauthorized migrants — as Americans in waiting is essential to reconciling a central tension in immigration and citizenship law generally. This is the tension between national borders and a sense of justice that is defined largely by a national commitment to equality. Part II analyzes how, in the historical context of U.S. immigration and citizenship laws, immigrants have — or have not — been treated as Americans in waiting whose integration should be fostered. Part III suggests ways to think about possible claims by unauthorized migrants to lawful immigration status and eventually to U.S. citizenship. The conclusion sets out a brief agenda for further thought.

Neighborhood Outsiders, Field Insiders: Latino Immigrant Men and the Control of Public Space. Trouille, David

 This paper examines how a group of primarily Latino immigrant men claim and control a sought-after and contested public soccer field in a West Los Angeles public park. In contrast to previous studies that took the stability, viability, and visibility of groups, and their claims, as given, this study examines how group boundaries become constructed and taken-for-granted in working out the use and control of public space. As this study reveals, control is premised on creating and sustaining meaningful distinctions between insiders and outsiders, which are far from self-evident in open gatherings. Control is also constructed through the enforcement of informal authority, which is inherently uncertain in public space, especially for stigmatized groups with no formal association to the area. By studying how social organization is repeatedly challenged and reconstructed on the playing field, this paper sheds new light onto how informal claims on public space are made and remade in the contemporary city.  

Changing Patterns of Chinese Immigration and Diaspora-Homeland Interactions in Singapore and the United States. Zhou, Min; Liu, Hong

After several decades' hiatus, there has been a sustained surge of Chinese emigration and resurgent opportunities for transnational activity since 1978. In this paper, we engage with the burgeoning literature on transnationalism, focusing on the roles of immigrant agency, disaporic communities, and nation states to examine the means and consequences of diasporahomel and interactions in different host societies. Specifically, we address the following questions: (1) How do emigration histories and receiving contexts matter in shaping diasporic formation? (2) Who is involved in diaspora-homeland interactions and what roles do different actors play? (3) What bearing do immigrants' transnational engagements have on their hostland integration? Through a comparative analysis of contemporary Chinese immigration to Singapore and the United States, we examine the interrelations among different actors and the roles each plays in cross-border activities. We find that differences in emigration histories and receiving cont...

Immigrant Unionization through the Great Recession. Catron, Peter

Previous research finds that in recent years immigrants had a higher propensity to unionize than native-born workers. However, there is little research that shows historically marginalized immigrant workers are able to maintain newly acquired union jobs, especially during times unfavorable to unionization more generally. Therefore, this paper focuses on immigrant unionization during the Great Recession of 2008 to determine whether the inroads that immigrants have made through organizing are maintained in hostile union environments. Using the Current Population Survey (CPS), I extend Rosenfeld and Kleykamp's (2009) models for Hispanic unionization (which end in 2007) through the recent downturn and beyond. I find that Hispanic immigrants, who hold higher odds of union entry or membership in Rosenfeld and Kleykamp's prerecession analysis, lost union jobs at an increased rate during the Great Recession compared with white native-born workers. These effects for Hispanic immigrants filter throughout various subcat...

Crossing Borders: International Migration in the New Century. Waldinger, Roger

The unending, global controversies over population movements across boundaries have spurred a burgeoning of migration scholarship, making it an exceptionally lively field. Though recent achievements are notable, significantly deepening our understanding of the phenomenon, migration scholarship has not reached its full potential. Its central handicap stems from the field's distinctive division of labor, with one literature situated at the point of origin studyingemigrationand the other at the point of destination studyingimmigration. This essay seeks to reorient migration scholarship away from the dichotomy between “here” and “there”. Emphasizing the inherent, ongoing connections between home and host countries, the distinctively political nature of population movements across boundaries, and the continuing importance of the national interests and identities that impede migration, I argue that such a focus can illuminate the ways in which international migration is a dilemma for democratic societies worldwide,...

Inheriting the Homeland? Intergenerational Transmission of Cross-Border Ties in Migrant Families. Soehl, Thomas; Waldinger, Roger

Theories of migrant transnationalism emphasize the enduring imprint of the pre-migration connections that the newcomers bring with them. But how do the children of migrants, raised in the parents' adopted country develop ties to the parental home country? Using a structural equation model and data from a recent survey of adult immigrant offspring in Los Angeles, this paper shows that second generation cross-border activities are strongly affected by earlier experiences of and exposure to home country influences . Socialization in the parental household is powerful, transmitting distinct home country competencies, loyalties and ties, but not a coherent package of transnationalism. Our analysis of five measures of cross-border activities and loyalties among the grown children of migrants shows that transmission is specific to the social logic underlying the connection: activities rooted in family relationships such as remitting are transmitted differently than emotional attachments to the parent's home country.

Criminal Clinics in the Pursuit of Immigrant Rights. Eagly, Ingrid V.

In 2006, mobile catering vendors in Los Angeles — known colloquially as lunch truck vendors orloncheros— found themselves subject to a municipal ordinance that severely limited the amount of time that they could sell food in public streets. Under the new local law, catering trucks were required to move every thirty minutes (if parked in a residential zone) or sixty minutes (if parked in a commercial zone) to a location at least one-half mile away. Vendors who did not comply were subject to steep fines. This Essay examines the work of the UCLA criminal defense clinic on behalf of a grassroots group of lunch truck operators that formed to contest, and ultimately invalidate, the Los Angeles ordinance. Specifically, this Essay assesses the clinic's effort to link an individual client's defense to a broader community-based campaign to organize immigrant workers around legal reform. Toward this end, Part I offers a descriptive account of theloncheros' political mobilization to challenge the Los Angeles durati...

Survival, Economic Mobility, and Community Among Los Angeles Fruit Vendors. Rosales, Rocio

How do undocumented immigrants survive in a punitive regulatory environment? Drawing upon four years of ethnographic research, this article examines how local repressive policies affect the economic mobility of immigrant fruit vendors in Los Angeles County. In the face of government enforcement, fruit vendors have implemented strategies that allow for short-term survival but fail to bolster long-term upward mobility. The four survival strategies that I analyze include: 1) reliance on kinship and paisano networks; 2) street patrols and alerts; 3) geographical positioning and alliance building; and 4) the performance and maintenance of personal,professional and symbolic hygiene. I argue that the limited gains and continuous lossesexperienced by fruit vendors following health and police department enforcement create a cycle of low income, high debt, and minimal to no mobility. Consequently, fruit vendors have fared much worse than their immigrant informal sector peers (i.e. gardeners, day labourers, and domestic...

Immigrant Organizations in the United States: Transnationalism, Community Building, and Immigrant Incorporation. Zhou, Min; Lee, Rennie

Immigrant organizations in the United States have proliferated by rapid international migration, globalization, and the rise of new transportation and communication technologies that facilitate long-distance and cross-border flows in recent years. The power and influence of these organizations have grown in tandem with immigrants' drive to make it in America and their obligations to support families and communities in sending countries. An emergent literature on transnationalism has burgeoned since the 1990s to examine new patterns of immigrant settlement. However, the existing research to date has put more emphasis on the effects of transnationalismon the development in sending countries than in receiving countries, paid more attention to immigrant groups from Latin America than those from Asia, and focused more on the individual than the organization as the unit of analysis. As a consequence, we do not have reliable knowledge of the impacts of transnationalism on immigrant communities in the host society an...

The Ambiguities of Political Opportunity: Political claims making of Russian-Jewish Immigrants in New York City. Soehl, Thomas

How, and as what are immigrant minorities incorporated into the political process? A set of prominent approaches focus on the political opportunity structure immigrants encounter. Though promising in many aspects, political opportunity approaches fail to consider the internal heterogeneity of both immigrant populations and opportunity structures. This is partly a result of taking ethnic groups rather than political entrepreneurs as the unit of analysis and of not disaggregating the political context properly. This paper shows how Russian-Jewish immigrant political entrepreneurs in New York City used very di�fferent strategies of ethnic mobilization, each emphasizing a di�fferent ethnic cleavage: one was making claims in the name of Russians, the other downplaying the Russianness and highlighting the Jewish identity dimension. Both strategies had good chances at success thus illustrating that political opportunity structures may encourage di�fferent claims making strategies at the same time. Ethno-political en...

Emigrants and the Body Politic Left Behind: Results from the Latino National Survey. Waldinger, Roger D; Soehl, Thomas; Lim, Nelson

There is a duality at the heart of the migration phenomenon, as the very same people who are immigrants are also emigrants, making a living and possibly setting down roots in the receiving society, but still connected to and oriented toward the home society where their significant others still often reside. While research has shown that home country political conditions and experiences affect immigrant political behaviour in the receiving society, scholarship has yet to ask how those same factors affect the ways in which emigrants relate to the body politic left behind. This paper seeks to fill that lacuna. We find that pre-migration political experiences impart a lasting post-migration interest in home country politics and that such effects are substantial compared with the impacts associated with other cross-border connections, such as remittance sending or return travel.

Local Immigration Prosecution: A Study of Arizona Before SB 1070. Eagly, Ingrid V.

Arizona's Senate Bill 1070 has focused attention on whether federal law preempts the prosecution of state immigration crime in local criminal courts. Absent from the current discussion, however, is an appreciation of how Arizona's existing body of criminal immigration law—passed well before SB 1070 and currently in force in the state—functions on the ground to regulate migration. Drawing on statistical data, prosecution policies, trial-level court records, and interviews with stakeholders, this Article is the first to investigate the practice of local immigration prosecution. It does so in the hotbed of immigration enforcement—Maricopa County, Arizona—through a detailed case study of the implementation of a 2005 Arizona alien smuggling law. Specifically, this Article reveals four key aspects of the national immigration system that have shifted in the face of state criminalization: the functional definition of immigration crime, the breadth of state immigration enforcement authority, the allocation of federal ...

Family Obligation across Contexts: Latino Youth in North Carolina and Southern California. Yahirun, Jenjira; Perreira, Krista; Fuligni, Andrew

Social contexts are often ignored as a possible explanation for ethnic group differences in reports of family obligation. One reason is that too often, social scientists rely on the false dichotomy between economic versus cultural explanations as the culprit behind ethnic differences in family behavior. This study adds much needed nuance to the literature on family obligation among ethnic minority youth by using data from urban and rural North Carolina and Southern California to investigate how social contexts are associated with family obligation. Using a sample of Latino adolescents we find that attending schools in neighborhoods with higher concentrations of co-ethnics is positively associated with family obligation, as is having a strong sense of ethnic identity. In addition, we find that among adolescents attending schools in neighborhoods with other Hispanics, levels of family obligation are higher for those with a stronger, rather than a weaker sense of ethnic belonging.

The Political Sociology of International Migration: Borders, Boundaries, Rights and Politics. Waldinger, Roger D; Soehl, Thomas

Politics is an underdeveloped topic in migration studies, a lacuna that derives from prevailing intellectual biases, whether having to do with those that focus on individual action or those that emphasize social processes. This paper identifies the central issues entailed in the study of migrant politics, whether having to do with receiving society immigrant politics or sending society emigrant politics, reviewing and assessing the ways in which scholars have tackled this problem.

Prosecuting Immigration. Eagly, Ingrid V.

The rise of immigration prosecution as the central feature of the federal criminal justice system challenges conventional understandings of the relationship between the criminal and immigration systems. This Article shows that, in the domain of immigration, the immigration state and criminal state operate as an integrated process in which defendants' rights and criminal procedural mechanisms have been redefined. On a doctrinal level, the integration of immigration and criminal enforcement has meant that rights traditionally accorded criminal defendants - such asMirandaand bail pending trial - are unevenly distributed along alienage lines. On an institutional level, immigration prosecution has supported an alternative federal adjudicatory structure, largely outside the confines of Article III criminal courts, that is defined by quick, mass processing of guilty pleas. Drawing on court rulings, government documents, legislative history, statistical data, and interviews, this Article argues that there are t...

The Rights of Others: Legal Claims and Immigration Outside the Law. Motomura, Hiroshi

This Article analyzes the rights of unauthorized migrants and elucidates how these noncitizens are incompletely but importantly integrated into the U.S. legal system. I examine four topics: (1) state and local laws targeting unauthorized migrants, (2) workplace rights and remedies, (3) suppression of evidence from an unlawful search or seizure, and (4) the right to effective counsel in immigration court. These four inquiries show how unauthorized migrants—though unable to assert individual rights as directly as U.S. citizens in the same circumstances—can nevertheless assert rights indirectly and obliquely by making transsubstantive arguments that fall into five general patterns. The first is an institutional competence argument that the wrong decisionmaker acted. The second is an argument that an unauthorized migrant was wronged by a comparatively culpable person. The third is a citizen proxy argument that sustaining an unauthorized migrant's claim will protect a U.S. citizen or lawful permanent residen...

Immigration Outside the Law. Motomura, Hiroshi

In current debates about undocumented or illegal immigration, three themes have emerged as central: the meaning of unlawful presence, the role of states and cities, and the integration of immigrants. This Essay's starting premise is that a reappraisal of these themes is essential to a conceptual roadmap of this difficult area of law and policy. This Essay argues that it is too narrow and too shallow to examine any of the three themes in isolation, as is typically done. Rather, each theme pairs up with another to reveal and elucidate a more fundamental question. The meaning of unlawful presence is connected to the role of states and cities; together they illuminate enforcement authority in immigration law. The role of states and cities combines with the integration of immigrants to show how communities that include immigrants are built. The meaning of unlawful presence and the integration of immigrants jointly shed light on how we think about the dimension of time in immigration law, and especially how w...

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