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[MP3FY]-Syrian-Requiem_-The-Civil-War-and-Its-Aftermath-12-lol.m4a


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Kind: captions

Language: en

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welcome<00:00:00.320> to<00:00:00.480> cmed's<00:00:00.880> virtual<00:00:01.280> webinar<00:00:01.920> my

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welcome to cmed's virtual webinar my

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welcome to cmed's virtual webinar my

name<00:00:02.240> is<00:00:02.399> manny<00:00:02.800> jad<00:00:03.120> and<00:00:03.280> i'm<00:00:03.360> the<00:00:03.520> deputy

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name is manny jad and i'm the deputy

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name is manny jad and i'm the deputy

director

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director

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director

of<00:00:04.799> the<00:00:04.960> center<00:00:05.279> for<00:00:05.440> middle<00:00:05.759> east

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of the center for middle east

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of the center for middle east

development<00:00:06.879> i<00:00:06.960> would<00:00:07.120> like<00:00:07.279> to<00:00:07.359> share<00:00:07.600> a<00:00:07.680> few

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development i would like to share a few

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development i would like to share a few

technical<00:00:08.320> notes<00:00:08.559> with<00:00:08.800> you

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technical notes with you

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technical notes with you

before<00:00:09.760> we<00:00:10.000> start<00:00:10.800> while<00:00:11.040> you<00:00:11.120> can<00:00:11.360> see<00:00:12.320> our

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before we start while you can see our

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before we start while you can see our

panelists<00:00:13.200> and<00:00:13.280> moderator<00:00:13.840> they<00:00:14.000> cannot<00:00:14.400> see

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panelists and moderator they cannot see

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panelists and moderator they cannot see

or<00:00:14.880> hear<00:00:15.200> you<00:00:16.640> if<00:00:16.880> you<00:00:17.119> are

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or hear you if you are

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or hear you if you are

joining<00:00:18.240> us<00:00:18.560> using<00:00:18.960> zoom<00:00:19.359> please<00:00:19.600> note<00:00:19.840> that

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joining us using zoom please note that

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joining us using zoom please note that

the<00:00:20.080> chat<00:00:20.320> box<00:00:20.640> at<00:00:20.800> the<00:00:20.880> bottom<00:00:21.119> of<00:00:21.279> your

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the chat box at the bottom of your

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the chat box at the bottom of your

screen

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screen

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screen

we<00:00:22.800> will<00:00:23.039> share<00:00:23.279> announcements<00:00:23.920> during<00:00:24.160> the

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we will share announcements during the

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we will share announcements during the

webinar<00:00:24.640> with<00:00:24.800> you<00:00:24.960> here<00:00:25.439> however<00:00:26.000> we<00:00:26.160> will

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webinar with you here however we will

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webinar with you here however we will

not

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not

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not

be<00:00:27.199> you<00:00:27.439> will<00:00:27.680> not<00:00:27.840> be<00:00:28.000> able<00:00:28.160> to<00:00:28.320> add<00:00:28.560> comments

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be you will not be able to add comments

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be you will not be able to add comments

in<00:00:29.119> the<00:00:29.279> chat<00:00:29.519> box

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in the chat box

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in the chat box

if<00:00:30.480> you<00:00:30.560> have<00:00:30.720> any<00:00:30.880> questions<00:00:31.199> for<00:00:31.359> a<00:00:31.439> panelist

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if you have any questions for a panelist

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if you have any questions for a panelist

or<00:00:32.079> moderator<00:00:32.640> please<00:00:32.880> type<00:00:33.120> them<00:00:33.360> in<00:00:33.600> the<00:00:33.760> q<00:00:34.079> a

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or moderator please type them in the q a

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or moderator please type them in the q a

box<00:00:34.719> which<00:00:34.960> is

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box which is

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box which is

at<00:00:35.360> the<00:00:35.520> bottom<00:00:35.840> of<00:00:35.920> your<00:00:36.160> screen<00:00:37.040> we<00:00:37.280> ask<00:00:37.440> that

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at the bottom of your screen we ask that

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at the bottom of your screen we ask that

you<00:00:37.760> add<00:00:37.920> your<00:00:38.160> name

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you add your name

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you add your name

your<00:00:38.800> country<00:00:39.360> and<00:00:39.600> or<00:00:39.760> affiliation<00:00:40.399> before

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your country and or affiliation before

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your country and or affiliation before

you<00:00:40.960> ask<00:00:41.200> a<00:00:41.360> question

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you ask a question

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you ask a question

please<00:00:43.040> keep<00:00:43.280> your<00:00:43.440> questions<00:00:44.239> concise<00:00:44.879> so

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please keep your questions concise so

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please keep your questions concise so

that<00:00:45.200> we<00:00:45.280> can<00:00:45.600> answer<00:00:46.000> as<00:00:46.160> many<00:00:46.559> questions<00:00:47.039> as

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that we can answer as many questions as

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that we can answer as many questions as

possible<00:00:47.680> during<00:00:48.000> the<00:00:48.160> q<00:00:48.480> a

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possible during the q a

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possible during the q a

since<00:00:49.760> the<00:00:49.920> talk<00:00:50.160> will<00:00:50.320> be<00:00:50.480> recorded<00:00:51.520> note

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since the talk will be recorded note

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since the talk will be recorded note

that<00:00:51.920> your<00:00:52.079> name<00:00:52.480> country<00:00:52.960> and<00:00:53.120> or

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that your name country and or

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that your name country and or

affiliation<00:00:54.000> will<00:00:54.160> be<00:00:54.320> part<00:00:54.640> of<00:00:54.719> the

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affiliation will be part of the

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affiliation will be part of the

recording

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recording

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recording

only<00:00:56.320> the<00:00:56.480> cmed<00:00:56.960> team<00:00:57.360> will<00:00:57.520> be<00:00:57.680> able<00:00:57.920> to<00:00:58.079> see

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only the cmed team will be able to see

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only the cmed team will be able to see

your<00:00:58.640> questions<00:00:59.199> and<00:00:59.359> in<00:00:59.440> some<00:00:59.680> rare<00:01:00.000> cases

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your questions and in some rare cases

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your questions and in some rare cases

we<00:01:01.120> will<00:01:01.359> answer<00:01:01.600> your<00:01:01.840> question<00:01:02.239> in<00:01:02.399> writing

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we will answer your question in writing

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we will answer your question in writing

in<00:01:02.960> the<00:01:03.120> q<00:01:03.440> a<00:01:03.600> box

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in the q a box

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in the q a box

if<00:01:04.559> you<00:01:04.640> are<00:01:04.799> joining<00:01:05.119> us<00:01:05.280> on<00:01:05.519> youtube<00:01:06.159> you

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if you are joining us on youtube you

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if you are joining us on youtube you

will<00:01:06.400> not<00:01:06.560> be<00:01:06.720> able<00:01:06.960> to<00:01:07.040> ask<00:01:07.280> a<00:01:07.439> question

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will not be able to ask a question

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will not be able to ask a question

because<00:01:08.400> comments<00:01:08.799> will<00:01:08.960> be<00:01:09.119> disabled<00:01:10.799> we<00:01:10.960> are

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because comments will be disabled we are

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because comments will be disabled we are

recording<00:01:11.439> the<00:01:11.600> entire<00:01:11.920> presentation<00:01:12.560> today

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recording the entire presentation today

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recording the entire presentation today

and<00:01:13.439> the<00:01:13.600> recording<00:01:14.000> will<00:01:14.159> be<00:01:14.320> available

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and the recording will be available

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and the recording will be available

after<00:01:15.439> the<00:01:15.680> event<00:01:16.240> on<00:01:16.320> the<00:01:16.479> cmed<00:01:16.880> website

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after the event on the cmed website

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after the event on the cmed website

youtube<00:01:18.000> channel<00:01:18.400> and<00:01:18.640> facebook<00:01:19.119> page<00:01:20.240> lastly

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youtube channel and facebook page lastly

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youtube channel and facebook page lastly

i<00:01:20.799> would<00:01:20.880> like<00:01:21.040> to<00:01:21.119> introduce<00:01:21.600> you<00:01:21.680> to<00:01:21.840> our

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i would like to introduce you to our

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i would like to introduce you to our

moderator<00:01:22.479> today

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moderator today

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moderator today

mr<00:01:23.200> steve<00:01:23.600> zipperstein<00:01:25.040> steve<00:01:25.360> zipperstein

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mr steve zipperstein steve zipperstein

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mr steve zipperstein steve zipperstein

is<00:01:26.080> a<00:01:26.159> lecturer

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is a lecturer

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is a lecturer

of<00:01:27.280> public<00:01:27.600> policy<00:01:28.159> and<00:01:28.320> global<00:01:28.640> studies<00:01:29.119> at

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of public policy and global studies at

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of public policy and global studies at

ucla

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ucla

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ucla

and<00:01:31.280> a<00:01:31.439> senior<00:01:31.840> fellow<00:01:32.240> at<00:01:32.320> cmed<00:01:33.119> he<00:01:33.360> also

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and a senior fellow at cmed he also

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and a senior fellow at cmed he also

serves<00:01:33.920> as<00:01:34.079> a<00:01:34.240> lecturer<00:01:34.640> of<00:01:34.720> history<00:01:35.200> at<00:01:35.280> uc

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serves as a lecturer of history at uc

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serves as a lecturer of history at uc

santa<00:01:35.920> barbara

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santa barbara

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santa barbara

and<00:01:37.119> as<00:01:37.280> a<00:01:37.360> visiting<00:01:37.759> professor<00:01:38.159> of<00:01:38.320> law<00:01:38.640> at

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and as a visiting professor of law at

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and as a visiting professor of law at

tel<00:01:38.960> aviv<00:01:39.360> university

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tel aviv university

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tel aviv university

zipperstein<00:01:41.119> is<00:01:41.600> the<00:01:41.840> author<00:01:42.560> of<00:01:42.720> a<00:01:42.880> recently

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zipperstein is the author of a recently

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zipperstein is the author of a recently

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published book

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published book

law<00:01:45.360> and<00:01:45.759> the<00:01:46.000> arab-israeli<00:01:46.720> conflict<00:01:47.200> the

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law and the arab-israeli conflict the

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law and the arab-israeli conflict the

trials<00:01:47.759> of<00:01:47.920> palestine

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trials of palestine

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trials of palestine

he<00:01:49.280> is<00:01:49.439> finishing<00:01:50.079> another<00:01:50.479> book<00:01:50.720> regarding

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he is finishing another book regarding

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he is finishing another book regarding

the<00:01:51.200> legal<00:01:51.520> history<00:01:52.000> of<00:01:52.079> the<00:01:52.240> arab<00:01:52.640> jewish

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the legal history of the arab jewish

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the legal history of the arab jewish

conflict<00:01:53.439> in<00:01:53.520> palestine

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conflict in palestine

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conflict in palestine

between<00:01:55.200> 1939<00:01:56.399> and<00:01:56.560> 1948

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between 1939 and 1948

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between 1939 and 1948

in<00:01:58.159> addition<00:01:58.560> he<00:01:58.880> also<00:01:59.280> published<00:01:59.680> several

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in addition he also published several

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in addition he also published several

academic<00:02:00.640> articles

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academic articles

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academic articles

zippers<00:02:01.920> team<00:02:02.159> practiced<00:02:02.560> law<00:02:02.799> for<00:02:02.960> more<00:02:03.119> than

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zippers team practiced law for more than

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zippers team practiced law for more than

37<00:02:03.920> years<00:02:04.479> in

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37 years in

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37 years in

california<00:02:05.520> washington<00:02:06.079> dc<00:02:06.640> new<00:02:06.799> york<00:02:07.119> and

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california washington dc new york and

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california washington dc new york and

new<00:02:07.439> jersey

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new jersey

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new jersey

he's<00:02:08.560> a<00:02:08.640> member<00:02:08.879> of<00:02:09.039> the<00:02:09.119> american<00:02:09.599> law

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he's a member of the american law

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he's a member of the american law

institute<00:02:10.800> and<00:02:11.039> a<00:02:11.200> life<00:02:11.520> fellow<00:02:11.920> of<00:02:12.000> the

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institute and a life fellow of the

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institute and a life fellow of the

american<00:02:12.640> bar

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american bar

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american bar

foundation<00:02:14.400> we<00:02:14.560> hope<00:02:14.720> you<00:02:14.959> enjoy<00:02:15.520> today's

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foundation we hope you enjoy today's

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foundation we hope you enjoy today's

presentation

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presentation

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presentation

and<00:02:17.280> i'll<00:02:17.440> now<00:02:17.680> pass<00:02:17.920> it<00:02:18.080> along<00:02:18.879> to<00:02:19.040> mr<00:02:19.760> steve

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and i'll now pass it along to mr steve

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and i'll now pass it along to mr steve

zipperstein<00:02:21.920> thank<00:02:22.160> you<00:02:22.319> so<00:02:22.480> much<00:02:22.800> manny<00:02:23.200> for

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zipperstein thank you so much manny for

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zipperstein thank you so much manny for

that<00:02:23.599> very<00:02:23.760> kind<00:02:24.080> introduction

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that very kind introduction

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that very kind introduction

welcome<00:02:25.520> all<00:02:25.680> of<00:02:25.840> you<00:02:26.160> to<00:02:26.400> our<00:02:27.280> wonderful

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welcome all of you to our wonderful

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welcome all of you to our wonderful

cmed<00:02:29.360> webinar<00:02:29.920> today<00:02:30.239> and<00:02:30.400> i<00:02:30.480> say<00:02:30.720> wonderful

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cmed webinar today and i say wonderful

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cmed webinar today and i say wonderful

because<00:02:31.599> we<00:02:31.840> are<00:02:32.000> really<00:02:32.319> blessed<00:02:32.640> to<00:02:32.800> be

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because we are really blessed to be

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because we are really blessed to be

joined

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joined

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joined

by<00:02:34.160> two<00:02:34.400> very<00:02:34.640> distinguished<00:02:35.200> authors<00:02:35.599> who

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by two very distinguished authors who

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by two very distinguished authors who

have<00:02:36.400> uh<00:02:36.879> written<00:02:37.200> this

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have uh written this

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have uh written this

very<00:02:37.840> very<00:02:38.319> important<00:02:38.879> book<00:02:39.680> syrian

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very very important book syrian

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very very important book syrian

requiem<00:02:41.200> the<00:02:41.280> civil<00:02:41.599> war<00:02:41.920> and<00:02:42.080> its<00:02:42.319> aftermath

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requiem the civil war and its aftermath

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requiem the civil war and its aftermath

and<00:02:43.440> here's<00:02:43.680> what<00:02:43.840> we're<00:02:43.920> going<00:02:44.000> to<00:02:44.080> do<00:02:44.239> we're

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and here's what we're going to do we're

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and here's what we're going to do we're

going<00:02:44.480> to<00:02:44.560> hear<00:02:44.720> from<00:02:44.959> our<00:02:45.120> two<00:02:45.360> authors<00:02:45.760> first

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going to hear from our two authors first

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going to hear from our two authors first

then<00:02:46.800> we're<00:02:46.959> going<00:02:47.120> to<00:02:47.200> hear<00:02:47.440> from<00:02:47.680> two<00:02:48.080> syria

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then we're going to hear from two syria

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then we're going to hear from two syria

experts<00:02:49.120> who<00:02:49.280> will

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experts who will

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experts who will

comment<00:02:50.640> on<00:02:50.800> the<00:02:50.959> book<00:02:51.680> then<00:02:51.840> we'll<00:02:52.000> have<00:02:52.160> a

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comment on the book then we'll have a

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comment on the book then we'll have a

panel<00:02:52.560> discussion<00:02:53.120> with<00:02:53.360> our<00:02:53.519> two<00:02:53.760> authors

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panel discussion with our two authors

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panel discussion with our two authors

and<00:02:54.800> our<00:02:54.959> two<00:02:55.200> experts<00:02:55.599> and<00:02:55.680> then<00:02:55.840> we'll<00:02:56.000> be

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and our two experts and then we'll be

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and our two experts and then we'll be

very<00:02:56.400> very<00:02:56.640> pleased<00:02:57.440> to<00:02:57.599> take

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very very pleased to take

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very very pleased to take

your<00:02:58.560> questions<00:02:58.959> as<00:02:59.120> many<00:02:59.440> indicated<00:03:00.319> please

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your questions as many indicated please

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your questions as many indicated please

put<00:03:00.800> your<00:03:00.959> questions<00:03:01.519> in<00:03:01.599> the<00:03:01.760> q

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put your questions in the q

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put your questions in the q

a<00:03:02.239> box<00:03:02.640> and<00:03:02.720> remember<00:03:03.519> to<00:03:03.680> identify<00:03:04.720> yourself

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a box and remember to identify yourself

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a box and remember to identify yourself

your<00:03:05.680> country<00:03:06.080> and<00:03:06.239> your<00:03:06.400> affiliation<00:03:07.040> and<00:03:07.200> to

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your country and your affiliation and to

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your country and your affiliation and to

keep<00:03:07.519> your<00:03:07.680> consensus<00:03:08.239> your<00:03:08.480> questions

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keep your consensus your questions

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keep your consensus your questions

concise<00:03:09.760> so<00:03:09.920> that<00:03:10.000> we<00:03:10.159> can<00:03:10.319> get<00:03:10.480> to<00:03:11.040> as<00:03:11.280> many<00:03:11.599> as

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concise so that we can get to as many as

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concise so that we can get to as many as

possible

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possible

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possible

i<00:03:13.440> want<00:03:13.599> to<00:03:13.760> thank<00:03:14.720> our<00:03:15.040> co-sponsors

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i want to thank our co-sponsors

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i want to thank our co-sponsors

the<00:03:16.640> ucla<00:03:17.200> berkeley<00:03:17.599> center<00:03:17.840> for

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the ucla berkeley center for

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the ucla berkeley center for

international<00:03:18.640> relations

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international relations

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international relations

and<00:03:19.760> the<00:03:19.920> ucla<00:03:21.040> luskin<00:03:21.599> school<00:03:21.920> of<00:03:22.000> public

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and the ucla luskin school of public

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and the ucla luskin school of public

affairs

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affairs

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affairs

department<00:03:23.760> of<00:03:23.920> public<00:03:24.319> policy<00:03:25.120> thank<00:03:25.280> you<00:03:25.440> so

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department of public policy thank you so

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department of public policy thank you so

much<00:03:25.840> for<00:03:26.000> your<00:03:26.159> co-sponsorship

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much for your co-sponsorship

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much for your co-sponsorship

let<00:03:27.599> me<00:03:27.760> now<00:03:28.000> introduce<00:03:28.879> our<00:03:29.120> two<00:03:29.360> co-authors

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let me now introduce our two co-authors

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let me now introduce our two co-authors

who<00:03:30.239> will

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who will

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who will

begin<00:03:31.280> our<00:03:31.440> discussion<00:03:32.000> today<00:03:32.400> we<00:03:32.560> are<00:03:32.799> very

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begin our discussion today we are very

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begin our discussion today we are very

very<00:03:33.519> honored<00:03:33.920> to<00:03:34.080> have<00:03:34.319> with<00:03:34.560> us

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very honored to have with us

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very honored to have with us

ambassador<00:03:35.840> itamar<00:03:36.400> rabinowicz<00:03:37.599> professor

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ambassador itamar rabinowicz professor

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ambassador itamar rabinowicz professor

emeritus<00:03:38.720> of<00:03:38.879> middle<00:03:39.120> eastern<00:03:39.519> history<00:03:39.920> at

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emeritus of middle eastern history at

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emeritus of middle eastern history at

tel<00:03:40.159> aviv<00:03:40.560> university

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tel aviv university

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tel aviv university

former<00:03:42.239> israeli<00:03:42.799> ambassador<00:03:43.360> to<00:03:43.519> the<00:03:43.599> united

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former israeli ambassador to the united

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former israeli ambassador to the united

states

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states

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states

former<00:03:45.200> israeli<00:03:45.680> chief<00:03:45.920> negotiator<00:03:46.480> with

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former israeli chief negotiator with

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former israeli chief negotiator with

syria<00:03:47.440> in<00:03:47.599> the<00:03:47.680> mid<00:03:47.920> 1990s

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syria in the mid 1990s

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syria in the mid 1990s

and<00:03:49.599> the<00:03:49.760> former<00:03:50.159> president<00:03:50.640> of<00:03:50.720> tel<00:03:50.879> aviv

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and the former president of tel aviv

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and the former president of tel aviv

university<00:03:52.159> from<00:03:52.400> two

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university from two

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university from two

from<00:03:53.120> 1999<00:03:54.400> to<00:03:54.760> 2007.

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from 1999 to 2007.

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from 1999 to 2007.

ambassador<00:03:56.640> rabinowicz<00:03:57.439> is<00:03:57.519> president

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ambassador rabinowicz is president

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ambassador rabinowicz is president

emeritus<00:03:58.879> and

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emeritus and

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emeritus and

counselor<00:03:59.680> of<00:03:59.760> the<00:03:59.920> israel<00:04:00.319> institute<00:04:00.799> in

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counselor of the israel institute in

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counselor of the israel institute in

washington<00:04:01.439> d.c

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washington d.c

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washington d.c

and<00:04:02.560> tel<00:04:02.799> aviv<00:04:03.200> and<00:04:03.280> a<00:04:03.360> distinguished<00:04:03.920> fellow

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and tel aviv and a distinguished fellow

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and tel aviv and a distinguished fellow

of<00:04:04.799> the<00:04:04.959> brooking<00:04:05.360> institutions<00:04:06.080> foreign

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of the brooking institutions foreign

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of the brooking institutions foreign

policy

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policy

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policy

program<00:04:08.319> he's<00:04:08.640> written<00:04:09.120> 10<00:04:09.760> books

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program he's written 10 books

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program he's written 10 books

on<00:04:10.720> the<00:04:10.879> modern<00:04:11.200> history<00:04:11.599> and<00:04:11.760> politics<00:04:12.239> of

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on the modern history and politics of

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on the modern history and politics of

the<00:04:12.400> middle<00:04:12.720> east<00:04:13.360> he's<00:04:13.599> the<00:04:13.760> co-author<00:04:14.319> and

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the middle east he's the co-author and

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the middle east he's the co-author and

co-editor<00:04:15.040> of<00:04:15.120> several<00:04:15.519> other<00:04:15.760> volumes

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co-editor of several other volumes

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co-editor of several other volumes

and<00:04:16.720> the<00:04:16.880> author<00:04:17.280> of<00:04:17.519> many<00:04:17.919> many<00:04:18.320> essays<00:04:19.199> and

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and the author of many many essays and

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and the author of many many essays and

papers<00:04:19.840> and<00:04:20.000> of<00:04:20.079> course

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papers and of course

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papers and of course

the<00:04:20.959> co-author<00:04:22.160> of<00:04:22.720> the<00:04:22.880> book<00:04:23.120> that<00:04:23.199> we're

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the co-author of the book that we're

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the co-author of the book that we're

going<00:04:23.440> to<00:04:23.600> hear<00:04:23.759> about<00:04:24.160> today<00:04:24.560> this<00:04:24.800> new<00:04:25.120> and

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going to hear about today this new and

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going to hear about today this new and

very<00:04:25.680> very

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very very

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very very

important<00:04:27.040> book<00:04:28.479> the<00:04:28.720> co-author<00:04:29.280> of<00:04:29.360> the<00:04:29.520> book

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important book the co-author of the book

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important book the co-author of the book

is<00:04:30.240> a<00:04:30.400> very<00:04:30.639> distinguished<00:04:31.360> scholar<00:04:31.840> in<00:04:31.919> her

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is a very distinguished scholar in her

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is a very distinguished scholar in her

own<00:04:32.320> right<00:04:32.560> dr<00:04:32.880> carmit<00:04:33.280> valencia

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own right dr carmit valencia

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own right dr carmit valencia

research<00:04:34.720> fellow<00:04:35.120> at<00:04:35.280> the<00:04:35.520> institute<00:04:36.000> for

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research fellow at the institute for

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research fellow at the institute for

national<00:04:36.720> security<00:04:37.280> studies

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national security studies

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national security studies

in<00:04:38.320> tel<00:04:38.560> aviv<00:04:39.440> director<00:04:39.840> of<00:04:39.919> the<00:04:40.000> syria

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in tel aviv director of the syria

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in tel aviv director of the syria

research<00:04:40.880> program<00:04:41.280> there<00:04:41.919> editor<00:04:42.320> of

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research program there editor of

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research program there editor of

strategic

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strategic

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strategic

assessment<00:04:44.160> specializing<00:04:45.040> in<00:04:45.120> contemporary

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assessment specializing in contemporary

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assessment specializing in contemporary

middle<00:04:46.080> east

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middle east

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middle east

strategic<00:04:47.199> studies<00:04:47.600> military<00:04:48.080> concepts<00:04:49.040> and

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strategic studies military concepts and

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strategic studies military concepts and

terrorism

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terrorism

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terrorism

dr<00:04:50.720> valencia<00:04:51.360> received<00:04:51.840> her<00:04:52.400> phd<00:04:52.960> in

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dr valencia received her phd in

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dr valencia received her phd in

political<00:04:53.440> science<00:04:53.759> from<00:04:53.919> tel<00:04:54.080> aviv

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political science from tel aviv

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political science from tel aviv

university

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university

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university

her<00:04:55.919> research<00:04:56.320> focuses<00:04:56.960> on<00:04:57.520> so-called<00:04:58.160> hybrid

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her research focuses on so-called hybrid

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her research focuses on so-called hybrid

actors

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actors

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actors

such<00:04:59.759> as<00:05:00.000> hamas<00:05:01.120> hezbollah<00:05:01.840> and<00:05:02.000> the<00:05:02.160> farc

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such as hamas hezbollah and the farc

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such as hamas hezbollah and the farc

in<00:05:02.800> colombia<00:05:03.840> she<00:05:04.000> was<00:05:04.160> a<00:05:04.240> research<00:05:04.880> fellow

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in colombia she was a research fellow

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in colombia she was a research fellow

with<00:05:05.280> the<00:05:05.440> fox<00:05:05.759> fellowship<00:05:06.320> in<00:05:06.400> regional<00:05:06.880> and

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with the fox fellowship in regional and

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with the fox fellowship in regional and

international<00:05:07.680> studies

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international studies

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international studies

at<00:05:08.639> yale<00:05:09.120> from<00:05:09.280> 2010<00:05:10.560> to<00:05:10.919> 2011

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at yale from 2010 to 2011

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at yale from 2010 to 2011

and<00:05:12.479> she's<00:05:12.720> been<00:05:12.880> a<00:05:12.960> consultant<00:05:13.840> for<00:05:14.000> the

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and she's been a consultant for the

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and she's been a consultant for the

israel<00:05:14.560> defense<00:05:14.960> forces

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israel defense forces

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israel defense forces

so<00:05:15.919> without<00:05:16.240> further<00:05:16.560> ado<00:05:16.880> let<00:05:17.039> me<00:05:17.199> turn<00:05:17.360> it

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so without further ado let me turn it

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so without further ado let me turn it

over<00:05:17.680> to<00:05:17.919> ambassador<00:05:18.400> robbie<00:05:18.720> novich

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over to ambassador robbie novich

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over to ambassador robbie novich

and<00:05:19.600> dr<00:05:19.919> valencia<00:05:20.479> thank<00:05:20.639> you<00:05:20.800> again<00:05:21.199> both<00:05:21.440> of

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and dr valencia thank you again both of

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and dr valencia thank you again both of

you<00:05:21.840> so<00:05:22.000> much

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you so much

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you so much

for<00:05:22.880> joining<00:05:23.199> us<00:05:23.520> today

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for joining us today

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for joining us today

yeah<00:05:26.800> thank<00:05:26.960> you<00:05:27.120> very<00:05:27.280> much<00:05:27.680> uh<00:05:27.919> steve<00:05:28.400> thank

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yeah thank you very much uh steve thank

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yeah thank you very much uh steve thank

you<00:05:28.880> all

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you all

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you all

and<00:05:30.479> i<00:05:30.720> will<00:05:31.520> i<00:05:31.680> will<00:05:31.840> begin

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and i will i will begin

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and i will i will begin

and<00:05:33.280> i<00:05:33.440> would<00:05:33.520> like<00:05:33.680> to<00:05:33.840> speak<00:05:34.080> about<00:05:34.320> the

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and i would like to speak about the

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and i would like to speak about the

concept<00:05:34.880> of<00:05:35.039> the<00:05:35.199> book<00:05:35.520> and<00:05:35.680> some<00:05:35.840> of<00:05:36.080> its

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concept of the book and some of its

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concept of the book and some of its

uh<00:05:36.880> aspects<00:05:38.080> um<00:05:39.280> when<00:05:39.440> we

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uh aspects um when we

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uh aspects um when we

set<00:05:40.160> out<00:05:40.320> to<00:05:40.639> write<00:05:40.880> a<00:05:40.960> book<00:05:41.280> about<00:05:41.840> the<00:05:42.000> syrian

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set out to write a book about the syrian

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set out to write a book about the syrian

civil<00:05:42.720> war<00:05:42.960> in<00:05:43.120> substance

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civil war in substance

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civil war in substance

we<00:05:43.919> decided<00:05:44.400> not<00:05:44.639> to<00:05:44.800> write<00:05:45.680> a<00:05:45.840> straight

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we decided not to write a straight

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we decided not to write a straight

narrative

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narrative

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narrative

as<00:05:47.600> many<00:05:48.400> authors<00:05:48.880> do<00:05:49.120> in<00:05:49.520> in<00:05:49.680> this<00:05:50.000> and<00:05:50.160> in

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as many authors do in in this and in

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as many authors do in in this and in

other<00:05:50.639> similar<00:05:51.120> cases<00:05:52.160> but<00:05:52.400> to<00:05:52.560> put<00:05:52.720> the

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other similar cases but to put the

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other similar cases but to put the

emphasis<00:05:53.440> on<00:05:53.759> analysis<00:05:54.400> of<00:05:54.560> the<00:05:54.720> forces

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emphasis on analysis of the forces

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emphasis on analysis of the forces

at<00:05:55.600> work<00:05:56.560> as<00:05:56.800> we<00:05:56.960> know<00:05:57.360> tragically<00:05:58.000> this<00:05:58.240> has

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at work as we know tragically this has

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at work as we know tragically this has

been<00:05:58.720> a<00:05:58.880> very<00:05:59.120> complicated

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been a very complicated

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been a very complicated

event<00:06:01.919> in<00:06:02.080> which<00:06:02.560> domestic<00:06:03.199> regional<00:06:03.759> and

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event in which domestic regional and

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event in which domestic regional and

international

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international

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international

actors<00:06:06.240> have<00:06:06.560> interacted<00:06:07.199> with<00:06:07.440> one<00:06:07.680> another

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actors have interacted with one another

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actors have interacted with one another

affected<00:06:08.560> one<00:06:08.800> another<00:06:09.280> and

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affected one another and

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affected one another and

created<00:06:10.160> this<00:06:10.479> very<00:06:10.720> complex<00:06:11.600> and<00:06:11.840> at<00:06:11.919> this

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created this very complex and at this

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created this very complex and at this

point<00:06:12.639> insoluble

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point insoluble

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point insoluble

issue<00:06:15.120> so<00:06:15.280> the<00:06:15.440> core<00:06:15.680> of<00:06:15.840> the<00:06:15.919> book<00:06:16.240> are<00:06:16.400> the

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issue so the core of the book are the

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issue so the core of the book are the

three<00:06:16.880> chapters

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three chapters

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three chapters

that<00:06:18.000> deal<00:06:18.560> with<00:06:18.800> the<00:06:19.199> respectively<00:06:19.840> domestic

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that deal with the respectively domestic

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that deal with the respectively domestic

regional

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regional

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regional

and<00:06:22.080> international<00:06:22.800> actors<00:06:23.199> there<00:06:23.360> are<00:06:23.520> two

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and international actors there are two

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and international actors there are two

preceding<00:06:24.720> chapters<00:06:25.280> that

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preceding chapters that

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preceding chapters that

offer<00:06:27.120> a<00:06:27.280> narrative<00:06:27.919> of<00:06:28.319> syrian<00:06:29.199> history<00:06:29.600> and

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offer a narrative of syrian history and

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offer a narrative of syrian history and

politics<00:06:30.319> from

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politics from

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politics from

independence<00:06:31.759> to<00:06:31.919> the<00:06:32.080> eve<00:06:32.400> of<00:06:32.560> the<00:06:33.520> outbreak

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independence to the eve of the outbreak

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independence to the eve of the outbreak

of<00:06:34.000> the<00:06:34.160> civil<00:06:34.479> war<00:06:34.800> and<00:06:34.960> the<00:06:35.120> final<00:06:35.440> chapter

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of the civil war and the final chapter

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of the civil war and the final chapter

dealing

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dealing

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dealing

with<00:06:37.039> the<00:06:37.120> more<00:06:37.360> contemporary<00:06:38.000> or<00:06:38.160> the

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with the more contemporary or the

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with the more contemporary or the

current<00:06:39.360> issues

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current issues

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current issues

with<00:06:40.960> regard<00:06:41.360> to<00:06:41.520> the<00:06:41.919> uh<00:06:42.639> to<00:06:42.800> the<00:06:42.960> actors

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with regard to the uh to the actors

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with regard to the uh to the actors

one<00:06:44.080> word<00:06:44.400> about<00:06:46.000> any<00:06:46.400> the<00:06:46.639> international

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one word about any the international

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one word about any the international

actors

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actors

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actors

it's<00:06:48.160> uh<00:06:49.120> it's<00:06:49.280> written<00:06:49.599> in<00:06:49.759> a

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it's uh it's written in a

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it's uh it's written in a

disproportionate<00:06:50.720> way<00:06:51.120> because

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disproportionate way because

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disproportionate way because

the<00:06:52.160> united<00:06:52.560> states<00:06:52.880> receives<00:06:53.360> a<00:06:53.440> much

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the united states receives a much

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the united states receives a much

greater<00:06:54.560> space

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greater space

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greater space

as<00:06:56.080> compared<00:06:56.479> to<00:06:56.720> russia<00:06:57.680> while<00:06:57.919> in<00:06:58.080> fact

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as compared to russia while in fact

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as compared to russia while in fact

russia<00:06:58.800> has<00:06:58.960> played<00:06:59.280> a<00:06:59.360> major<00:06:59.759> role<00:07:00.000> a<00:07:00.080> more

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russia has played a major role a more

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russia has played a major role a more

important<00:07:00.720> role

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important role

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important role

in<00:07:01.759> the<00:07:01.919> civil<00:07:02.240> war<00:07:02.479> and<00:07:02.639> actually

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in the civil war and actually

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in the civil war and actually

contributed<00:07:03.759> to

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contributed to

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contributed to

keeping<00:07:07.520> bashar<00:07:07.840> al-assad<00:07:08.240> in<00:07:08.400> power<00:07:08.800> he's

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keeping bashar al-assad in power he's

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keeping bashar al-assad in power he's

not

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not

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not

he<00:07:09.840> did<00:07:10.000> not<00:07:10.240> win<00:07:10.400> the<00:07:10.560> civil<00:07:10.880> war<00:07:11.039> but<00:07:11.199> he

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he did not win the civil war but he

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he did not win the civil war but he

survived<00:07:11.759> the<00:07:11.919> civil<00:07:12.319> war<00:07:12.560> and<00:07:12.720> he<00:07:12.880> did<00:07:13.120> so

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survived the civil war and he did so

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survived the civil war and he did so

because<00:07:14.479> of<00:07:15.120> russian<00:07:15.599> and<00:07:16.240> and<00:07:16.400> iranian

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because of russian and and iranian

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because of russian and and iranian

health

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health

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health

but<00:07:18.240> uh<00:07:18.880> u.s<00:07:19.199> policy<00:07:19.599> is<00:07:19.759> much<00:07:19.919> more<00:07:20.160> complex

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but uh u.s policy is much more complex

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but uh u.s policy is much more complex

and<00:07:21.680> much<00:07:21.919> more<00:07:22.080> available<00:07:23.120> there<00:07:23.280> is<00:07:23.360> not

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and much more available there is not

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and much more available there is not

that<00:07:23.840> much<00:07:24.080> that<00:07:24.240> we<00:07:24.400> know<00:07:24.560> about

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that much that we know about

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that much that we know about

domestic<00:07:26.400> debates<00:07:26.880> in<00:07:27.039> the<00:07:28.000> in<00:07:28.160> the<00:07:28.240> kremlin

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domestic debates in the in the kremlin

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domestic debates in the in the kremlin

about

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about

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about

syria<00:07:29.759> policy<00:07:31.120> different<00:07:31.680> actors<00:07:32.080> and<00:07:32.240> so

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syria policy different actors and so

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syria policy different actors and so

forth<00:07:32.639> we<00:07:32.800> know<00:07:32.960> a<00:07:33.039> lot

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forth we know a lot

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forth we know a lot

about<00:07:34.319> the<00:07:34.400> debates<00:07:34.960> inside<00:07:35.360> the<00:07:35.520> obama

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about the debates inside the obama

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about the debates inside the obama

administration<00:07:36.639> about<00:07:37.039> the

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administration about the

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administration about the

zigzagging<00:07:38.639> during<00:07:39.039> the<00:07:40.720> trump

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zigzagging during the trump

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zigzagging during the trump

administration

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administration

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administration

memoirs<00:07:43.120> their<00:07:43.360> revelations<00:07:44.720> and<00:07:45.360> uh

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memoirs their revelations and uh

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memoirs their revelations and uh

we<00:07:45.919> were<00:07:46.160> tempted<00:07:46.560> to<00:07:46.879> to<00:07:47.039> deal<00:07:47.280> with<00:07:47.520> it<00:07:47.680> so

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we were tempted to to deal with it so

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we were tempted to to deal with it so

there's<00:07:48.319> almost<00:07:48.639> a<00:07:48.720> separate<00:07:49.199> essay

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there's almost a separate essay

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there's almost a separate essay

uh<00:07:50.639> that<00:07:50.879> deals<00:07:51.199> with<00:07:51.520> uh<00:07:52.080> two<00:07:52.240> important

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uh that deals with uh two important

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uh that deals with uh two important

periods

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periods

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periods

in<00:07:53.680> american<00:07:54.240> policy<00:07:55.360> uh<00:07:55.680> in<00:07:55.840> the

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in american policy uh in the

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in american policy uh in the

in<00:07:56.720> the<00:07:56.879> middle<00:07:57.199> east<00:07:58.000> in<00:07:58.160> the<00:07:58.639> uh<00:07:59.520> chapter

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in the middle east in the uh chapter

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in the middle east in the uh chapter

dealing<00:08:00.160> with

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dealing with

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dealing with

domestic<00:08:01.199> actors<00:08:02.560> we<00:08:02.720> decided<00:08:03.280> to

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domestic actors we decided to

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domestic actors we decided to

include<00:08:04.639> the<00:08:04.879> section<00:08:05.840> dealing<00:08:06.160> with<00:08:06.400> what<00:08:06.639> we

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include the section dealing with what we

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include the section dealing with what we

call

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call

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call

the<00:08:07.360> culture<00:08:07.759> war<00:08:08.080> the<00:08:08.240> war<00:08:09.199> between<00:08:09.599> the

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the culture war the war between the

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the culture war the war between the

regime<00:08:10.240> and<00:08:10.319> the<00:08:10.560> opposition

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regime and the opposition

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regime and the opposition

over<00:08:11.919> the<00:08:12.080> support<00:08:12.479> of<00:08:12.639> the<00:08:12.720> cultural<00:08:13.440> and

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over the support of the cultural and

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over the support of the cultural and

artistic<00:08:14.080> communities

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artistic communities

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artistic communities

syria<00:08:15.840> until<00:08:17.280> until<00:08:17.599> the

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syria until until the

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syria until until the

tragic<00:08:18.720> civil<00:08:19.039> war<00:08:19.759> was<00:08:20.000> a<00:08:20.080> very<00:08:20.319> important

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tragic civil war was a very important

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tragic civil war was a very important

cultural<00:08:21.280> and<00:08:21.440> artistic<00:08:21.840> hub

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cultural and artistic hub

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cultural and artistic hub

in<00:08:23.120> the<00:08:23.840> in<00:08:24.000> the<00:08:24.080> arab<00:08:24.319> world<00:08:24.639> is<00:08:25.039> theater<00:08:25.599> it's

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in the in the arab world is theater it's

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in the in the arab world is theater it's

literature<00:08:26.479> it's<00:08:26.639> intellectuals

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literature it's intellectuals

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literature it's intellectuals

television<00:08:28.800> shows<00:08:30.160> have<00:08:30.319> played<00:08:30.639> a<00:08:30.720> very

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television shows have played a very

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television shows have played a very

important<00:08:31.280> role

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important role

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important role

in<00:08:32.479> the<00:08:32.640> arab<00:08:32.959> world<00:08:33.760> and<00:08:34.880> there<00:08:35.039> was<00:08:35.200> a

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in the arab world and there was a

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in the arab world and there was a

contest<00:08:35.760> between<00:08:36.080> the<00:08:36.240> regime<00:08:36.640> and<00:08:36.719> the

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contest between the regime and the

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contest between the regime and the

opposition

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opposition

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opposition

trying<00:08:38.320> to<00:08:38.479> win<00:08:38.800> over<00:08:39.680> famous<00:08:40.560> artists<00:08:41.039> and

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trying to win over famous artists and

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trying to win over famous artists and

cultural<00:08:41.680> figures

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cultural figures

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cultural figures

to<00:08:43.120> their<00:08:43.919> to<00:08:44.080> their<00:08:44.320> side<00:08:44.560> so<00:08:44.720> we<00:08:44.880> deal<00:08:45.040> with

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to their to their side so we deal with

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to their to their side so we deal with

that

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that

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that

and<00:08:46.720> we<00:08:46.959> also<00:08:47.200> deal<00:08:47.519> with<00:08:47.760> the<00:08:47.920> positions

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and we also deal with the positions

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and we also deal with the positions

taken<00:08:48.800> by

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taken by

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taken by

the<00:08:49.600> major<00:08:50.000> figures<00:08:50.399> of<00:08:50.880> syrian<00:08:52.000> intellectual

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the major figures of syrian intellectual

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the major figures of syrian intellectual

and<00:08:52.720> cultural

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and cultural

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and cultural

life<00:08:54.399> statical<00:08:54.959> adam<00:08:55.279> the<00:08:55.440> greatest<00:08:56.240> syrian

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life statical adam the greatest syrian

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life statical adam the greatest syrian

intellectual<00:08:57.279> in<00:08:57.360> the<00:08:57.600> second<00:08:57.920> part<00:08:58.160> of<00:08:58.320> the

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intellectual in the second part of the

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intellectual in the second part of the

previous<00:08:59.519> century<00:09:00.080> and<00:09:00.160> we<00:09:00.320> are<00:09:00.399> fortunate<00:09:00.800> to

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previous century and we are fortunate to

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previous century and we are fortunate to

have<00:09:01.200> his<00:09:01.279> son<00:09:01.600> amur

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have his son amur

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have his son amur

with<00:09:03.360> us<00:09:03.600> as<00:09:03.839> a<00:09:04.399> as<00:09:04.640> a<00:09:04.720> panelist<00:09:05.279> he<00:09:05.680> really<00:09:05.920> was

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with us as a as a panelist he really was

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with us as a as a panelist he really was

a<00:09:06.160> great<00:09:06.399> man<00:09:06.720> a<00:09:06.880> great<00:09:07.200> critic

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a great man a great critic

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a great man a great critic

of<00:09:08.399> the<00:09:08.560> regime<00:09:08.959> who<00:09:09.120> ended<00:09:09.920> his<00:09:10.160> life<00:09:10.800> in

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of the regime who ended his life in

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of the regime who ended his life in

exile

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exile

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exile

in<00:09:12.880> adonis<00:09:13.440> the<00:09:13.680> the<00:09:13.839> greatest<00:09:14.240> syrian<00:09:14.640> poet

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in adonis the the greatest syrian poet

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in adonis the the greatest syrian poet

and<00:09:15.680> in<00:09:15.839> a<00:09:15.920> way<00:09:16.080> they<00:09:16.240> tell<00:09:16.480> the<00:09:16.640> story

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and in a way they tell the story

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and in a way they tell the story

of<00:09:17.760> the<00:09:17.920> conflict<00:09:18.399> because<00:09:18.800> the<00:09:19.279> azims<00:09:20.080> are<00:09:20.240> a

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of the conflict because the azims are a

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of the conflict because the azims are a

great<00:09:20.480> damascus<00:09:21.120> family<00:09:21.519> the<00:09:21.760> asms

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great damascus family the asms

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great damascus family the asms

were<00:09:22.959> the<00:09:23.760> dynasty<00:09:24.320> of<00:09:24.480> the<00:09:24.560> governors<00:09:24.959> of

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were the dynasty of the governors of

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were the dynasty of the governors of

damascus

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damascus

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damascus

in<00:09:26.480> the<00:09:26.640> 18th<00:09:27.040> century<00:09:27.519> and<00:09:27.680> have<00:09:27.920> been<00:09:28.080> very

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in the 18th century and have been very

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in the 18th century and have been very

important<00:09:28.800> in<00:09:28.880> damascus<00:09:29.600> and

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important in damascus and

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important in damascus and

syrian<00:09:30.640> politics<00:09:31.680> and<00:09:31.839> life<00:09:32.160> in<00:09:32.480> in<00:09:32.640> general

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syrian politics and life in in general

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syrian politics and life in in general

adonis<00:09:34.080> comes<00:09:34.399> from<00:09:34.560> an<00:09:34.720> alawite<00:09:35.200> village<00:09:35.600> the

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adonis comes from an alawite village the

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adonis comes from an alawite village the

alawite<00:09:36.320> minority

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alawite minority

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alawite minority

is<00:09:38.000> actually<00:09:38.399> in<00:09:38.560> power<00:09:38.880> the<00:09:39.040> assads<00:09:39.600> are

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is actually in power the assads are

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is actually in power the assads are

otherwise

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otherwise

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otherwise

adonis<00:09:41.519> of<00:09:41.600> course<00:09:41.839> is<00:09:41.920> not<00:09:42.160> his<00:09:42.399> original

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adonis of course is not his original

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adonis of course is not his original

name<00:09:43.440> it's<00:09:43.680> a<00:09:43.839> non<00:09:44.000> diplim

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name it's a non diplim

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name it's a non diplim

he<00:09:45.440> lives<00:09:45.760> in<00:09:46.080> in<00:09:46.240> paris<00:09:46.720> and<00:09:46.959> while<00:09:48.160> azam<00:09:48.560> was

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he lives in in paris and while azam was

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he lives in in paris and while azam was

very<00:09:49.680> critical<00:09:50.080> of<00:09:50.160> the<00:09:50.320> regime<00:09:50.720> adonis<00:09:51.279> was

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very critical of the regime adonis was

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very critical of the regime adonis was

only<00:09:51.920> mildly<00:09:52.399> critical

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only mildly critical

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only mildly critical

uh<00:09:53.839> if<00:09:54.399> that<00:09:55.279> so

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uh if that so

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uh if that so

we<00:09:56.560> hope<00:09:56.880> that<00:09:57.920> the<00:09:58.080> reader<00:09:58.399> will<00:09:58.640> benefit<00:09:59.360> and

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we hope that the reader will benefit and

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we hope that the reader will benefit and

not<00:09:59.839> just<00:10:00.080> from<00:10:00.320> a<00:10:00.480> narrative<00:10:01.120> that

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not just from a narrative that

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not just from a narrative that

has<00:10:02.320> included<00:10:03.120> in<00:10:03.200> the<00:10:03.360> book<00:10:04.079> but<00:10:04.320> from<00:10:04.560> the

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has included in the book but from the

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has included in the book but from the

analysis<00:10:05.279> of<00:10:05.440> the

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analysis of the

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analysis of the

different<00:10:06.640> uh<00:10:06.959> forces<00:10:07.600> domestically<00:10:08.800> the

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different uh forces domestically the

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different uh forces domestically the

original<00:10:09.519> actors

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original actors

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original actors

and<00:10:10.160> the<00:10:10.320> two<00:10:10.640> principal<00:10:11.600> international

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and the two principal international

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and the two principal international

actors<00:10:12.720> the<00:10:12.880> united<00:10:13.200> states<00:10:13.600> and

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actors the united states and

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actors the united states and

and<00:10:14.160> russia<00:10:15.200> and<00:10:15.440> let<00:10:15.600> me<00:10:15.760> now<00:10:16.000> pass<00:10:16.160> the

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and russia and let me now pass the

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and russia and let me now pass the

pattern<00:10:16.800> to<00:10:16.959> my

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pattern to my

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pattern to my

partner<00:10:17.839> permits

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good<00:10:20.880> morning<00:10:21.279> and<00:10:21.440> thank<00:10:21.600> you<00:10:21.760> for

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good morning and thank you for

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good morning and thank you for

organizing<00:10:22.640> this<00:10:22.880> event<00:10:23.200> it<00:10:23.279> is<00:10:23.519> great

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organizing this event it is great

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organizing this event it is great

pleasure<00:10:24.160> to<00:10:24.240> be<00:10:24.399> here

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pleasure to be here

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pleasure to be here

um<00:10:25.760> when<00:10:26.000> we<00:10:26.160> first<00:10:26.399> began<00:10:26.800> thinking<00:10:27.120> about

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um when we first began thinking about

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um when we first began thinking about

writing<00:10:27.839> this<00:10:28.079> book

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writing this book

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writing this book

it<00:10:28.959> seems<00:10:29.360> that<00:10:29.600> a<00:10:29.680> war<00:10:30.000> was<00:10:30.160> about<00:10:30.480> to<00:10:30.640> end

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it seems that a war was about to end

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it seems that a war was about to end

with<00:10:31.120> the<00:10:31.279> victory<00:10:31.680> of<00:10:31.760> bashar<00:10:32.160> al-assad

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with the victory of bashar al-assad

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with the victory of bashar al-assad

it<00:10:33.519> started<00:10:33.839> with<00:10:34.000> the<00:10:34.079> conquest<00:10:34.560> of<00:10:34.720> aleppo

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it started with the conquest of aleppo

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it started with the conquest of aleppo

province<00:10:35.680> in<00:10:35.760> december<00:10:36.200> 2016

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province in december 2016

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province in december 2016

and<00:10:37.519> later<00:10:37.839> with<00:10:38.000> the<00:10:38.160> regime<00:10:38.959> capturing<00:10:39.680> all

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and later with the regime capturing all

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and later with the regime capturing all

but<00:10:40.160> the<00:10:40.320> area<00:10:40.640> of<00:10:40.720> idlib<00:10:41.120> in<00:10:41.200> northwest<00:10:41.760> syria

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but the area of idlib in northwest syria

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but the area of idlib in northwest syria

ten<00:10:43.279> years<00:10:43.519> into<00:10:43.760> the<00:10:43.920> war<00:10:44.320> and<00:10:44.480> no<00:10:44.720> solution

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ten years into the war and no solution

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ten years into the war and no solution

is<00:10:45.360> inside<00:10:45.680> for<00:10:46.000> syria

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is inside for syria

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is inside for syria

one<00:10:47.279> of<00:10:47.440> the<00:10:47.600> longest<00:10:48.079> and<00:10:48.160> most<00:10:48.480> violent

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one of the longest and most violent

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one of the longest and most violent

conflicts<00:10:49.519> of<00:10:49.680> our<00:10:49.839> time

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conflicts of our time

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conflicts of our time

basically<00:10:51.040> resulted<00:10:51.519> in<00:10:51.680> an<00:10:51.839> unprecedented

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basically resulted in an unprecedented

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basically resulted in an unprecedented

humanitarian<00:10:53.440> crisis

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humanitarian crisis

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humanitarian crisis

with<00:10:54.320> a<00:10:54.399> dramatic<00:10:55.040> balance<00:10:56.000> half<00:10:56.240> a<00:10:56.320> million

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with a dramatic balance half a million

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with a dramatic balance half a million

victims

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victims

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victims

13<00:10:57.760> million<00:10:58.079> people<00:10:58.399> in<00:10:58.560> need<00:10:58.959> and<00:10:59.200> 12<00:10:59.519> million

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13 million people in need and 12 million

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13 million people in need and 12 million

refugees<00:11:00.560> an<00:11:00.720> internally<00:11:01.200> displaced<00:11:01.680> person

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refugees an internally displaced person

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refugees an internally displaced person

the<00:11:03.519> title<00:11:03.920> we<00:11:04.079> chose<00:11:04.560> for<00:11:04.720> this<00:11:05.040> book

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the title we chose for this book

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the title we chose for this book

reflects<00:11:06.000> our<00:11:06.240> belief

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reflects our belief

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reflects our belief

that<00:11:07.360> syria<00:11:07.839> of<00:11:07.920> the<00:11:08.079> years<00:11:08.480> of<00:11:08.959> 1963<00:11:10.000> to

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that syria of the years of 1963 to

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that syria of the years of 1963 to

2011<00:11:11.519> which<00:11:11.760> was<00:11:11.920> a<00:11:12.079> strong<00:11:12.399> state<00:11:12.720> a<00:11:12.800> very

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2011 which was a strong state a very

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2011 which was a strong state a very

important<00:11:13.519> regional

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important regional

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important regional

actor<00:11:14.880> and<00:11:15.120> even<00:11:15.279> to<00:11:15.440> some<00:11:15.680> extent<00:11:16.399> an

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actor and even to some extent an

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actor and even to some extent an

international

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international

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international

actor<00:11:18.480> does<00:11:18.720> not<00:11:18.959> exist<00:11:19.440> now<00:11:19.839> and<00:11:20.000> it<00:11:20.160> is

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actor does not exist now and it is

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actor does not exist now and it is

unlikely<00:11:20.800> to<00:11:20.959> be<00:11:21.120> restored<00:11:21.680> any<00:11:21.920> time

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unlikely to be restored any time

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unlikely to be restored any time

soon<00:11:23.680> bashar<00:11:24.079> al-assad<00:11:24.480> may<00:11:24.720> have<00:11:24.880> managed<00:11:25.279> to

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soon bashar al-assad may have managed to

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soon bashar al-assad may have managed to

order<00:11:25.839> into<00:11:26.079> power

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order into power

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order into power

but<00:11:27.200> he<00:11:27.440> lacks<00:11:27.839> internal<00:11:28.240> legitimacy<00:11:29.279> and<00:11:29.440> is

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but he lacks internal legitimacy and is

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but he lacks internal legitimacy and is

entirely<00:11:30.079> dependent</