The Age of Change
Over time, Chinese nobles and their armies gained power. In 771 B.C. powerful nobles invaded the Zhou capital, drove out its leaders, and became China's rulers. This was a time of unrest and great confusion.
Many great thinkers wanted to restore order to chinese society. They tried to persuade the Chinese people and their rulers to accept their teachings and their view of how china should be ruled. One of the great thinkers was Confucius.
Even today, Chinese people follow his teachings.

Pasted GraphicWhy did Zhou kings lose their power, and who controlled China after them?


Pasted Graphic 6New Terms:
nobility = a class of people having high birth or rank
Confucianism = Confucius's ideas on family,tradition, and
respect

Confucius The Teacher
Confucius lived from 551 B.C. His family belonged to the nobility, although they were poor. Confucius studied hard and became one of the world's most successful teachers. His ideas a code of behavior, are known as Confucianism. Here are some of his basic teachings:

-Kindness and goodness are very important.
-The foundation for every relationship, especially in families, should be sincerity, loyalty, and respect.
-If rulers are wise and good, then the people will also be wise and good.
-Government officials must earn their positions through education.

One hundred years after Confucius died, a follower, Mencius, spread the
ideas of Confucianism throughout the country.

Pasted Graphic 1What were some basic teachings of Confucius ?

Opponents of Confucianism confucius
In the last days of the Zhou dynasty, scholars, or educated people, argued about how the people should behave and how rulers should govern. Not all scholars supported the ideas and teachings of confucianism. For example, one group, the Moists (MOH ihsts), believed the equal love for all people would bring peace. They believed that men of learning should be the rulers, not just guide the rulers. Another group, the Legalists, believed that people were bad and needed to have strict laws and harsh punishment. they believed that rulers needed to forget the past and be powerful, rather than just good. A third group, the Daoists, believed that people should live a simple, thoughtful life in harmony with nature. They had little interests in politics or government.


Pasted Graphic 2In what ways did each of these groups - Moists, Legalists, and Daoists - disagree with Confucius?