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Treaty of Nanjing (Nanking), 1842

Teaty of Nanjing singed after the the Opium War between Britain and China

Treaty of Nanjing (Nanking), 1842

(Ratifications exchanged at Hongkong, 26th June 1843.)
	VICTORIA, by the Grace of God, Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, 
Defender of the Faith, etc., etc., etc. To All and Singular to whom these Presents shall come, Greeting !
Whereas a Treaty between Us and Our Good Brother The Emperor of China, was concluded and signed, 
in the English and Chinese Languages, on board Our Ship the Cornwallis, at Nanking, on the Twenty-ninth 
day of August, in the Year of Our Lord One Thousand Eight Hundred and Forty-two, by the 
Plenipotentiaries of Us and of Our said Good Brother, duly and respectively authorized for that purpose; 
which Treaty is hereunto annexed in Original.
TREATY
	Her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and His Majesty the 
Emperor of China, being desirous of putting an end to the misunderstandings and consequent hostilities 
which have arisen between the two Countries, have resolved to conclude a Treaty for that purpose, and 
have therefore named as their Plenipotentiaries, that is to say: Her Majesty the Queen of Great Britain and Ireland, 
HENRY POTTINGER, Bart., a Major General in the Service of the East India Company, etc., etc.;	
And His Imperial Majesty the Emperor of China, the High Commiasioners KEYING, a Member of the Imperial House, 
a Guardian of the Crown Prince and General  of the Garrison of Canton; and ELEPOO, of Imperial Kindred, 
graciously permitted to wear the insignia of the first rank, and the distinction of  Peacock's feather, lately Minister and 
Governor General etc., and now Lieutenant-General Commanding at Chapoo: Who, after having communicated 
to each other their respective Full Powers and found them to be in good and due form, have agreed upon, 
and concluded, the following Articles:
ARTICLE I. 
	There shall henceforward be Peace and Friendship between Her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of 
Great Britain and Ireland, and His Majesty the Emperor of China, and between their respective Subjects, who shall 
enjoy full security and protection for their persons and property within the Dominions of the other. 
ARTICLE II.
	His Majesty the Emperor of China agrees that British Subjects, with their families and establishments, shall be 
allowed to reside, for the purpose of carrying on their Mercantile pursuits, without molestation or restraint at the 
Cities and Towns of Canton, Amoy, Foochow-fu, Ningpo, and Shanghai, and Her Majesty the Queen of 
Great Britain, etc., will appoint Superintendents or Consular Officers, to reside at each of the above-named 
Cities or Towns, to be the medium of communication between the Chinese Authorities and the said Merchants, 
and to see that the just Duties and other Dues of the Chinese Government is hereafter provided for, are duly 
discharged by Her Britannic Majesty's Subjects.
ARTICLE III.
	It being obviously necessary and desirable, that British Subjects should have some Port whereat they 
may careen and refit their Ships, when required, and keep Stores for that purpose, His Majesty the Emperor 
of China cedes to Her Majesty the Queen of Great Britain, etc., the Island of Hongkong, to be possessed 
in perpetuity by Her Britannic Majesty, Her Heirs and Successors, and to be governed by such Laws and 
Regulations as Her Majesty the Queen of Great Britain, etc., shall see fit to direct. 
ARTICLE  IV. 
	The Emperor of China agrees to pay the sum of Six Millions of Dollars as the value of Opium which was 
delivered up at Canton in the month of March 1839, as a Ransom for the lives of Her Britannic Majesty's 
Superintendent and Subjects, who had been imprisoned and threatened with death by the Chinese High Officers.
ARTICLE V.
	The Government of China having compelled the British Merchants trading at Canton to deal exclusively with 
certain Chinese Merchants called Hong Merchants (or Cohong) who had been licensed by the Chinese Government 
for that purpose, the Emperor of China agrees to abolish that practice in future at all Ports where British Merchants 
may reside, and to permit them to carry on their mercantile transactions with whatever persons they please, and His 
Imperial Majesty further agrees to pay to the British Government the sum of Three Millions of Dollars, on acoount 
of Debts due to British Subjects by some of the said Hong Merchants (or Cohong), who have become insolvent, 
and who owe very large sums of money to Subjects of Her Britannic Majesty.
ARTICLE VI.
	The Government of Her Britannic Majesty having been obliged to send out an Expedition to demand and obtain 
redress for the violent and unjust Proceedings of the Chinese High Authorities towards Her Britannic Majesty's Officer 
and Subjects, the Emperor of China agrees to pay the sum of Twelve Millions of Dollars on account of the Expenses 
incurred, and Her Britannic Majesty's Plenipotentiary voluntarily agrees, on behalf of Her Majesty, to deduct from 
the said amount of Twelve Millions of Dollars, any sums which may have been received by Her Majesty's combined 
Forces as Ransom for Cities and Towns in China, subsequent to the 1st day of August 1841.
ARTICLE VII. 
	It is agreed that the Total amount of Twenty-one Millions of Dollars, described in the three preceding Articles, 
shall be paid as follows:
	Six Millions immediately.
	Six Millions in 1843. That is:NThree Millions on or before the 30th of the month of June, and Three Millions on 
or before the 31St of December.
	Five Millions in 1844. That is:NTwo Millions and a Half on or before the 30th of June, and Two Millions and a half 
on or before the 31St of December.
	Four Millions in 1845. That is:NTwo Millions on or before the 30th of June, and Two Millions on or before the 
31 st of December; and it is further stipulated, that Interest at the rate of 5 per cent. per annum, shall be paid by the 
Government of China on any portions of the above sums that are not punctually discharged at the periods fixed.
ARTICLE VIII.
	The Emperor of China agrees to release unconditionally all Subjects of leer Britannic Majesty (whether Natives 
of Europe or India) who may be in confinement at this moment, in any part of the Chinese Empire.
ARTICLE  IX.
	The Emperor of China agrees to publish and promulgate, under His Imperial Sign Manual and Seal, a full and 
entire amnesty and act of indemnity, to all Subjects of China on account of their having resided under, or having had 
dealings and intercourse with, or having entered the Service of Her Britannic Majesty, or of Her Majesty's Officers, 
and His lmperial Majesty further engages to release all Chinese Subjects who may be at this moment in confinement 
for similar reasons. 
ARTICLE X.
	His Majesty the Emperor of China agrees to establish at all the Ports which are by the 2nd Article of this Treaty 
to be thrown open for the resort of British Merchants, a fair and regular Tariff of Export and Import Customs and 
other Dues, which Tariff shall be publicly notified and promulgated for general information, and the Emperor further 
engages, that when British Merchandise shall have once paid at any of the said Ports the regulated Customs and 
Dues agreeable to the Tariff, to be hereafter fixed, such Merchandise may be conveyed by Chinese Merchants, 
to any Province or City in the interior of the Empire of China on paying a further amount as Transit Duties which 
shall not exceed per cent. On the tariff value of such goods.
ARTICLE Xl.
	It is agreed that Her Britannic Majesty's Chief High Officer in China shall correspond with the Chinese High 
Officers, both at the Capital and in the Provinces, under the term "Communication" [chinese characters]. The 
Subordinate British Officers and Chinese High Officers in the Provinces under the terms "Statement" 
[chinese characters] on the part of the former, and on the part of the latter " Declaration " [chinese characters], 
and the Subordinates of both Countries on a footing of perfect equality. Merchants and others not holding 
official situations and, therefore, not included in the above, on both sides, to use the term " Representation " 
[chinese characters] in all Papers addressed to, or intended for the notice of the respective Governments. 
ARTICLE XII.
	On the assent of the Emperor of China to this Treaty being received and the discharge of the first instalment 
of money, Her Britannic Majesty's Forces will retire from Nanking and the Grand Canal, and will no longer 
molest or stop the Trade of China. The Military Post at Chinhai will also be withdrawn, but the Islands of 
Koolangsoo and that of Chusan will continue to be held by Her Majesty's Forces until the money payments, 
and the arrangements for opening the Ports to British Merchants be completed. 
ARTICLE XIII. 
	The Ratification of the Treaty by Her Majesty the Queen of Great Britain, etc., and His Majesty the Emperor of 
China shall be exchanged as soon as the great distance which separates England from China will admit; but in the 
meantime counterpart copies of it, signed and sealed by the Plenipotentiaries on behalf of their respective Sovereigns, 
shall be mutually delivered, and all its provisions and arrangements shall take effect.
	Done at Nanking and Signed and Sealed by the Plenipotentiaries on board Her Britannic Majesty's ship Cornwallis,
 this twenty-ninth day of August, 1842, corresponding with the Chinese date, twenty-fourth day of the seventh month 
in the twenty-second Year of TAOU KWANG. 
	(L.S.) 	HENRY POTTINGER,
	Her Majesty's Plenipotentiary.
Chinese Signatures (3).*
| Chinese Seal. |


	We, having seen and considered the Treaty aforesaid, have approved, accepted, and confirmed the same 
in all and every one of its Articles and Clauses, as We do by these Presents approve, accept, confirm, and ratify 
it for Ourselves, Our Heirs, and Successors:Engaging and Promising upon Our Royal Word, that We will sincerely 
and faithfully perform and observe all and singular the things which are contained and expressed in the Treaty 
aforesaid, and that We will never suffer the same to be violated by any one, or transgressed in any manner, 
as far as it lies in Our Power.
	For the greater Testimony and Validity of all which, We have caused the Great Seal of Our United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland 
to be affixed to these Presents, which We have signed with Our Royal Hand.
	Given at Our Court at Windsor Castle, the Twenty-eighth day of December, in the Year of Our Lord 
One Thousand  Eight Hundred and Forty-two, and in the Sixth Year of Our Reign.


(Signed)      VICTORIA R. 
* The preamble mentions two Chinese negotiators only, KEYING and ELEPOO. The third signature was that 
of NIUKIEN, Liang Kiang Viceroy.

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