Editors: Russell N. Campbell, University of California, Los Angeles Donna Christian, Center for Applied Linguistics
The "intergenerational transmission" of heritage languages (HLs) is crucial to the vitality of heritage language communities (especially for indigenous communities, where immigration is not a source of new speakers). We know, however, that HLs in the United States often do NOT survive well from one generation to the next as the shift to English takes place. In conjunction with the Second National Conference on Heritage Languages in America, a small group of researchers met to discuss priorities for research on intergenerational transmission of languages. Each of the ten researchers who participated prepared a short paper, posing research questions with some commentary to guide future research. Those papers form the major part of this article, covering topics related to language ecological patterns (in communities, families, and institutions), language ideology, measurement issues, and literacy.
Heritage languages in the United States are sustained and grow in several ways. One vehicle is through newcomers who immigrate to this country where their language resources refresh heritage communities. Heritage languages (HLs) also grow through transfer of language knowledge from one generation to the next within communities and families. This "intergenerational transmission" of HLs is crucial to the vitality of heritage language communities (especially for indigenous communities, where immigration is not a source of new speakers). We know, however, that HLs in the United States often do NOT survive from one generation to the next (or they gradually, or not so gradually, diminish). Veltman (1983) and other demographers note a typical three-generation shift to English in heritage language families. Among immigrant language minorities the characteristic pattern has been that the first generation acquires some English while remaining strongest in the native tongue; the second generation usually becomes bilingual with more developed literacy skill in English because English is the language of instruction; and the third generation has a tendency to become English speaking with little or no capability in the language of their grandparents. Some say this pattern is inevitable in this country under current (ideological and social) conditions. The pattern is not evidenced in all communities, of course, but it is pervasive. We need to understand what contributes to or impedes transfer of language from one generation to another, so that, where possible, HL maintenance and development can be better supported.
In October 2002, in conjunction with the Second National Conference on Heritage Languages in America, a small group of researchers came together for a day to discuss the priorities for research needed to address the question of intergenerational transmission of languages.(1) As noted at the meeting, important insights into language loyalty and language shift in the United States are available from investigators such as Fishman (1966, 1991), Veltman (1983) and Kloss (1998), but much more remains to be learned about the mechanisms of and influences on intergenerational transfer. The goal of the discussion was to bring together multiple perspectives on the problem and to pose a set of research questions with some commentary to guide future research. Our distinguished invited participants were asked to generate the kinds of research questions that need to be defined and addressed and that might, in some instances, help break this unfortunate chain that leads to the ultimate loss of huge national, community, and personal resources in the form of heritage languages.
The ten researchers who participated each prepared a short paper on some aspect of intergenerational transfer of HLs. They brought drafts to the meeting and then revised them in light of the comments made. Those short papers form the major part of this article. Although the topics covered in the papers encompass diverse perspectives and themes, during the discussion, four primary categories, or clusters, of research directions emerged. These clusters are elaborated by Joseph Lo Bianco in the next section. Following that commentary are the ten short papers.
This important topic deserves attention from current and future researchers. Our hope is that the agenda presented here will lead to many valuable public and private research and development projects, and that what is learned as a result will help future generations conserve and transfer the rich heritage language resources they possess.
Joseph Lo Bianco
The discussion of researchable fields related to intergenerational transfer of heritage languages led to the identification of four clusters or topic categories. These are not suggested to be exhaustive in any way, but they organize the topics covered in this article fairly well. Some of the short papers focus primarily on one or another of the areas; others range across several.
For HL students, the varying communicative loads carried by English, HL, and other languages used or learned by them (or required of them by education institutions) constitute the linguistic profile of their lives. For the HL, in particular, this representation reflects degrees, rate and depth of language shift (with total language extinction its extreme end) or maintenance.
The cluster of issues within the rubric of the ecology of languages covers (among many other issues) the role of the school system and other institutions, the historical experiences of particular language communities, the unique circumstances involved in the adoption by some communities or individuals of proxy HLs as part of the complex multiple identities of contemporary life, and the specifiable impact of a language ecological pattern over the life cycle of individuals and families. This cluster also includes the understandings of proficiency that might emerge from community-based notions of correctness and from norm setting in complex sociolinguistic contexts of multiple language knowledge, multilingual code-switching practices, and multiple local identities. Identified as particularly relevant to researching this cluster of variables is the collection of personal and familial biographies.
A discrete component of the ecology of HLs concerns the infrastructures within specific communities that are entrusted with HL revitalization or preservation and their relation with the institutions of mainstream society (e.g. the schools). The particularities and dynamics of local, social, and political conditions in specific communities need to be described and compared so that differential cultural evaluations of HL and other factors that promote or impede successful intergenerational HL retention can be better understood. Researchable features of a broad language ecology pattern that were identified included: residential settlement patterns; concentrations of speakers and the proportion of youth; community institutional density; frequency of encounters with naturalistic use of the HL; and community control of children's socialization.
Under the rubric of language ecology and its impact on HL issues, specific fields nominated for research attention included: the shifting kinds of identities as invoked by language use and learning; the re-acquisition a HL; the identity impact on the learner and his/her social network of affiliation; and descriptive accounts of the genres of literacy and discourses of belonging particular to individual communities and their community schools or cultural settings where HL learning is encouraged, or HL use occurs.
Intergenerational transmission of HLs is clearly affected by language ideologies as they interact with the specific circumstances and prospects of HL acquisition, maintenance, and re-acquisition. We need to understand the ways in which some ideologies become hegemonic, or sustain that status, and how ideologies of language operate in specific contexts, differently or similarly for different languages. A key question concerns how language-specific ideologies, or specific linguistic cultures (Schiffman 1996) relating to particular languages, affect practice in our schools and universities and how these in turn impact on the learning, loss, re-acquisition, literacy elaboration, or community-appropriate proficiency of HLs in mainstream institutions.
Ideologies of language are intimately connected with culture ideologies and histories of given language communities. How these relate to institutional discourses, as represented in the policies and practices of such institutions, requires examination of these interconnections. The communicative expectation of young people involves at least English and English literacy, academic language competence and attitudes toward the study of foreign languages, as well as knowledge about language in general. The influence of the dominant mainstream expectation, a wider language ideology, may serve to repress interest and motivation in HL, especially indigenous HL, with respect to English, public culture in American society, and citizenship expectations.
In the discussion, a number of the questions identified for research related to the operation of language ideologies, in particular school practices, in the articulation between schools and other institutions (such as the labor market and higher education) and between HL speaking families. These contexts ( community, school, work) form the major settings for socialization of young HL speakers, and it is important to understand how these various phases and segments of socialization articulate and how their messages become internalized by HL communities as hegemonic patterns.
Under the rubric of ideology and its impact on HL issues, specific nominations for research attention were examinations of language policies, comparatively over time and across different state and national contexts.
A cluster of factors related to measurement was a recurring theme of research identified as important. In order for research on HLs to be feasible and valid, it must be possible to measure HL ability in a valid and reliable manner. Existing language assessments do not discriminate among aspects of proficiency that are relevant to many HL speakers. For example, a common profile of an HL speaker includes very high levels of oral proficiency with more limited skills in literacy. Few assessments extend to these high levels of oral proficiency. Furthermore, HL speakers may have a range of dialects of the HL in their repertoire that are not recognized by existing assessments. The field needs measures of proficiency attainment that are both situationally sensitive and relevant for mainstream institutional use. The notion of measurement engages with a variety of important issues, including: community authenticity; norm setting and 'policing'; purism in use and code switching; and settings, contexts and environments for the display of particular kinds of HL mastery or use. For mainstream institutional use, measurements need to predict and describe language skills in fair and valid ways that are helpful for tracking, placement, and for the completion of requirements of those institutions.
The specific impact of literacy attainment and the pattern of community literacy practices constitute a specific cluster of research topics and issues. Biliteracy in relation to HL practices requires attention to Hornberger and Skilton-Sylvester (2000) and Hornberger's (2002) four nested and interconnected components of continua for literacy, viz, Context, Content, Media and Development. This notion of continua of biliteracy usefully organizes researchable questions in relation to each other in an ecological framework for community understanding, educational intervention and social practices. Contexts are framed by level of specificity, between micro and macro, by oral and literate continua, and by literate capability in one or more languages. Content describes elements of majority/minority, vernacular-oral/formal literate, and levels and degrees of contextualization. Media frames simultaneous/successive exposure, similarity/dissimilarity in structure and divergence/convergence in scripts.
It is inevitable that literate practice will be involved in HL attainment, re-acquisition or transmission beyond the intimate settings of home and immediate family with the young. Its relation to subsequent literacy, English and third languages is also a field of considerable HL research importance.
Adams, David Wallace. Education for Extinction. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 1995.
____. "Fundamental Considerations: The Deep Meaning of Native American Schooling, 1800-1900." Harvard Educational Review 58.1 (1998): 1-28.
Allard, Réal, and Rodrigue Landry. "Subjective Ethnolinguistic Vitality Viewed as a Belief System." Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 7.1 (1986): 1-12.
Althusser, Louis. "Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses." Lenin and Philosophy and Other Essays. Trans. Ben Brewster. New York: Monthly Review Press, 1971: 127-86.
Arviso, Marie, and Wayne Holm. "Native American Language Immersion Programs: Can There Be Bilingual Education When the Language Is Going (or Gone) as a Child Language?" Journal of Navajo Education 8.1 (1990): 39-47.
Bayley, Robert, Sandra R. Schecter, and Buenaventura Torres-Ayala. "Strategies for Bilingual Maintenance: Case Studies of Mexican-origin Families in Texas." Linguistics and Education 8 (1996): 389-408.
Benham, Maenette K. P. Ah Nee, and Ronald H. Heck. Culture and Education in Hawai‘i: The Silencing of Native Voices. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1998.
Benjamin, Rebecca, Pecos, Regis and Romero, Mary E. "Language Revitalization Efforts in the Pueblo de Cochiti: Becoming 'Literate' in an Oral Society." Indigenous Literacies in the Americas: Language Planning from the Bottom Up. Ed. N. Hornberger. Berlin and New York: Mouton, 1997. 114-36.
Bielenberg, Brian. Who Will Sing the Songs? Language Renewal among Puebloan Adolescents. Diss. University of California at Berkeley, 2002.
Blum-Martinez, Rebecca. "Languages and Tribal Sovereignty: Whose Language Is It Anyway?" Theory Into Practice 39.4 (2000): 211-19.
Blum-Martinez, Rebecca, Leanne Hinton, and Christine P. Sims. A Manual for Community-based Language Revitalization. Albuquerque, NM: Linguistic Institute for Native Americans, 2001.
Blum-Martinez, Rebecca, and Regis Pecos. "The Key to Cultural Survival: Language Planning and Revitalization in the Pueblo de Cochiti." Hale and Hinton 75-82.
Bourhis, Richard Yvon, Howard Giles, and Doreen Rosenthal. "Notes on the Construction of a 'Subjective Vitality Questionnaire' for Ethnolinguistic Groups ." Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 2.2 (1981): 145-55.
Boyer, Paul. "Learning Lodge Institute: Montana Colleges Empower Cultures to Save Languages." Tribal College Journal XI.3 (2000): 12-14.
Branaman, Lucinda, and Nancy C. Rhodes. A National Survey of Foreign Language Instruction in Elementary and Secondary Schools--Changing Picture: 1987- 1997. Executive Summary. Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics, 1997.
Cantoni, Gina, ed. Stabilizing Indigenous Languages. Flagstaff, AZ: Northern Arizona University, 1996.
Cho, Grace, and Stephen Krashen. "The Role of Voluntary Factors in Heritage Language Development: How Speakers Can Develop the Heritage Language on Their Own." ITL, Review of Applied Linguistics 127-128 (2000): 127-40.
Clark, John L. D. "Language." College Students' Knowledge and Beliefs: A Survey of Global Understanding. Ed. Thomas S. Barrows. New Rochelle, NY: Council on Learning; Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service, 1981. 87-100.
Cohen, Felix. Felix Cohen's Handbook of Federal Indian Law. Charlottesville, VA: Mitchie, Bobbs-Merrill, 1982.
Dale, Jennifer. "Rekindling the Anishnabe Language Fires at Bay Mills." Tribal College Journal XI.3 (2000): 22-23.
Dewey, Dan. The Effects of Study Context on the Acquisition of Reading by Students of Japanese as a Second Language: A Comparison of Study-Abroad and Intensive Domestic Immersion. Diss. Carnegie Mellon University, 2002.
Duarte, Carmen. "Regulations Trip Up Language Program." Arizona Daily Star 30 September 2002: B7.
Fishman, Joshua A. Language Loyalty in the United States. The Hague: Mouton, 1966.
____. Reversing Language Shift. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters, 1991.
____. "Maintaining Languages: What Works? What Doesn't?" Stabilizing Indigenous Languages. Ed. G. Cantoni. Flagstaff, AZ: Northern Arizona University, 1996.
____. Can Threatened Languages be Saved? Reversing Language Shift Revisited: A 21st Century Perspective. Clevedon, Avon: Multilingual Matters, 2001.
Gardner, Robert C., Anne-Marie Masgoret, and Paul F. Tremblay. "Home Background Characteristics and Second Language Learning." Journal of Language and Social Psychology 18.4 (1999): 419-37.
Gibson, Margaret A., and John. U. Ogbu, eds. Minority Status and Schooling: A Comparative Study of Immigrant and Involuntary Minorities. New York: Garland, 1991.
González, Norma. I Am My Language: Discourses of Women and Children in the Borderlands. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 2001.
González, Norma, and Elizabeth Arnot-Hopffer. "Voices of the Children: Language and Literacy Ideologies in a Dual-Language Immersion Program." The Linguistic Anthropology of Education. Ed. Stanton Wortham and Betsy Rymes. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2003. 213-243.
Hakuta, Kenji, and Daniel D'Andrea. "Some Properties of Bilingual Maintenance and Loss in Mexican Background High-School Students." Applied Linguistics 13 (1992): 72-99.
Hale, Kenneth, and Leanne Hinton, eds. The Green Book of Language Revitalization in Practice. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 2001.
Hernández-Chávez, Eduardo. "Language Policy in the United States: A History of Cultural Genocide." Linguistic Human Rights: Overcoming Linguistic Discrimination. Ed. Tove Skutnabb-Kangas and Robert Phillipson. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 1994. 141-58.
Holm, Wayne. 1993. "On the Use of the Navajo Language in Navajo Head Start Centers: Preliminary Considerations." Journal of Navajo Education 10.3 (1993): 36-45.
Hornberger, Nancy H. "Continua of Biliteracy." Review of Educational Research 59.3 (1989): 271-96.
____. "Creating Successful Learning Contexts for Bilingual Literacy." Teachers College Record 92.2 (1990): 212-29.
____. "Multilingual Language Policies and the Continua of Biliteracy: An Ecological Approach." Language Policy 1 (2002): 27-51.
____, ed. Continua of Biliteracy: An Ecological Framework for Educational Policy, Research and Practice in Multilingual Settings. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters, 2003.
____. "Biliteracy." Multidisciplinary Perspectives on Literacy Research Ed. R. Beach, J. Green, M. Kamil and T. Shanahan. 2nd ed. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press. Forthcoming.
Hornberger, Nancy. H., and Ellen Skilton-Sylvester. "Revisiting the Continua of Biliteracy: International and Critical Perspectives." Language and Education: An International Journal 14.2 (2000): 96-122.
Hornberger, Nancy H. and Shuhan C. Wang. "Who Are Our Heritage Language Learners? Identity and Biliteracy in Heritage Language Education in the United States." Heritage Language: A New Field Emerging. Ed. Donna Brinton and Olga Kagan. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Forthcoming.
Johnson, III, Lester R. "Bird Teaches Math and Science with Cultural Foundation." Tribal College Journal XI.3 (2000): 24-25.
Joseph, Pamela B., Stephanie L. Bravmann, Mark A. Windschitl, Edward R. Mikel, and Nancy S. Green. Cultures of Curriculum. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2000.
Kipp, Darrell L. Encouragement, Guidance, Insights, and Lessons Learned for Native Language Activists Developing Their Own Tribal Language Programs. Browning, MT: Piegan Institute, 2000.
Kloss, Heinz. The American Bilingual Tradition. Washington, DC and McHenry, IL: Center for Applied Linguistics and Delta Systems, 1997.
Kondo, Kimi. "Social-Psychological Factors Affecting Language Maintenance: Interviews with Shin Nisei University Students in Hawaii." Linguistics and Education 9 (1998): 369-408.
Krauss, Michael. "The Condition of Native North American Language: The Need for Realistic Assessment and Action." International Journal of the Sociology of Language 132 (1998): 9-21.
Lambert, Wallace E. Students' Views of the Amigos Program. Santa Cruz, CA and Washington, DC: National Center for Research on Cultural Diversity and Second Language Learning, 1994.
Lee, Jin Sook. "The Korean Language in America: The Role of Cultural Identity in Heritage Language Learning." Language, Culture and Curriculum 15.2 (2002 ): 117-33.
Leibowitz, Arnold H. "English Literacy: Legal Sanction for Discrimination." Notre Dame Lawyer 25.1 (1969): 7-66.
____. Educational Policy and Political Acceptance: The Imposition of English as the Language of Instruction in American Schools. 1971. ERIC ED 047 321.
____. Federal Recognition of the Rights of Minority Language Groups. Rosslyn, VA: National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education, 1982.
Lo Bianco, Joseph. "Language Policies: State Texts For Silencing and Giving Voice." Difference, Silence and Textual Practice: Studies in Critical Literacy. Ed. Peter Freebody, Sandy Muspratt and Bronwyn Dwyer. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press, 2001. 31-71.
____. 2001. Officialising Language: A Discourse Study of Language Politics in the United States. Diss. Australian National University, 2001.
Macías, Reynaldo F. "Language Policies and the Sociolinguistic Historiography of Spanish in the United States." Language in Action. Ed. Joy Kreeft Peyton, Peg Griffin, Walt Wolfram and Ralph Fasold. Creskill, NJ: Hampton Press, 1999. 52-83.
Martin-Jones, Marilyn, and Suzanne Romaine. "Semilingualism: A Half-baked Theory of Communicative Competence." Applied Linguistics 7.1 (1986): 26- 38.
Masgoret, Anne Marie. Investigating Cross-cultural Adjustment, and the Influence of Foreign Language Instructors on Second Language Achievement. Diss. University of Western Ontario, 2002.
McCarty, Teresa L. "Bilingual Education Policy and the Empowerment of American Indian Communities." The Journal of Educational Issues of Language Minority Students 14 (1994): 23-41.
____. "Schooling, Resistance, and American Indian Languages." Indigenous Language Use and Change in the Americas. Ed. Teresa L. McCarty and Ofelia Zepeda. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 132. Berlin, New York: Mouton de Gruyter, 1998. 27-41.
____. A Place to Be Navajo. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2002.
McCarty, Teresa L, and Ofelia Zepeda, eds. "Special Issue: Indigenous Language Education and Literacy." Bilingual Research Journal 19.1 (1995).
Menchaca, Martha, and Richard R.Valencia. "Anglo-Saxon Ideologies in the 1920s-1930s: Their Impact on the Segregation of Mexican Students in California." Anthropology & Education Quarterly 21 (1990): 222-49.
Mistaken Chief, Sr., Duane. "Using Blackfoot Language to Rediscover Who We Are." Tribal College Journal XI.3 (2000): 26-27.
No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, Conference Report to Accompany H.R. 1, Rpt. No. 107-334. House of Representatives, 107th Congress, 1st Session.
North Slope Borough School District Resolution, No. 2003-03. Seeking Clarification on the Native American Languages and the No Child Left Behind Acts.
Ogbu, John U. "Cultural Discontinuities and Schooling." Anthropology and Education Quarterly 13 (1982): 290-307.
Padilla, Amado M., and Hyekyung Sung. The Stanford Foreign Language Oral Skills Evaluation Matrix (FLOSEM): A Rating Scale for Assessing Communicative Proficiency. 1999. ERIC ED 445 538.
Pfaff, Carol W. "The Issue of Grammaticalization in Early German Second Language." Studies in Second Language Acquisition 14 (1992): 273-96.
____. "Turkish Language Development in Germany." Immigrant Languages in Europe. Ed. Guus Estra and Ludo T. Verhoeven. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters, 1993. 119-46.
Philips, Susan. "Language Ideologies in Institutions of Power: A Commentary." Schieffelin, Woolard, and Kroskrity 211-25.
Phinney, Jean S. "The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure: A New Scale for Use with Diverse Groups." Journal of Adolescent Research 7.2 (1992): 156 -76.
Portes, Alejandro, and Lingxin Hao. "E Pluribus Unum: Bilingualism and Loss of Language in the Second Generation." Sociology of Education 71 (1998 ): 269- 94.
Public Law 101-477. October 30, 1990. Title I, Native American Languages Act. Washington, DC: U.S. Government.
Public Law 107-110, January 8, 2002, No Child Left Behind Act. Washington, DC: U.S. Government.
Reyhner, Jon. "Policies toward American Indian Languages: A Historical Sketch." Language Loyalties. Ed. J. Crawford. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992: 41-47.
Reyhner, Jon, and Jeanne Eder. A History of Indian Education. Billings, MT: Eastern Montana College, 1989.
Schecter, Sandra R., and Robert Bayley. "Language Socialization Practices and Cultural Identity: Case Studies of Mexican-Descent Families in California and Texas." TESOL Quarterly 31 (1997): 513-41.
Schieffelin, Bambi, Kathryn A. Woolard, and Paul V. Kroskrity, eds. Language Ideologies: Practice and Theory. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998.
Schiffman, Harold F. Linguistic Culture and Language Policy. London: Routledge, 1996.
Shin, Fay, and Stephen D. Krashen. "Do People Appreciate the Benefits of Advanced First Language Development? Attitudes Towards Continuing First Language Development after 'Transition.'" Heritage Language Development. Ed. Stephen D. Krashen, Lucy Tse, and Jeff McQuillan. Culver City, CA: Language Education Associates, 1998. 41-49.
Shin, Sarah J., and Ann L. Milroy. "Bilingual Language Acquisition by Korean Schoolchildren in New York City." Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 2 ( 1999): 147-67.
Sims, Christine P. Native Language Communities: A Descriptive Study of Two Community Efforts to Preserve Their Native Languages. Washington, DC: The George Washington University, 1996.
____. "Community-Based Efforts to Preserve Native Languages: A Descriptive Study of the Karuk Tribe of Northern California." International Journal of the Sociology of Languages 132 (1998): 95-113.
____. "Native Language Planning: A Pilot Process in the Acoma Pueblo Community." Hale and Hinton 63-73.
Suina, Joe. "Secrecy and Knowledge in the Pueblo Organization." The Head of the Rio Grande: A Reader. Ed. J. Williams. Albuquerque, NM: Southwest Institute, 1990.
Tamura, Eileen H. "The English-Only Effort, the Anti-Japanese Campaign, and Language Acquisition in the Education of Japanese Americans in Hawaii, 1915- 1940." History of Education Quarterly 33 (1993): 37-58.
Tatalovich, Raymond. Nativism Reborn? The Official English Language Movement and the American States. Lexington, KY: University of Kentucky Press, 1995.
Thomas, George. Linguistic Purism. London: Longman, 1991.
Valdés, Guadalupe, Sonia González, Dania García, and Patricio Márquez. "Language Ideology: The Case of Spanish in Departments of Foreign Languages." Anthropology and Education Quarterly. In press.
Veltman, Calvin. Language Shift in the United States. The Hague: Mouton, 1983.
____. The Future of Spanish in the United States. Washington, DC: Hispanic Policy Development Project, 1988.
____. "The American Linguistic Mosaic." New Immigrants in the United States. Sandra L. McKay and Sau-Ling C. Wong, eds. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999: 58-93.
Verhoeven, Ludo T. "Acquisition of Discourse Cohesion in Turkish." Studies on Turkish Linguistics. Ed. Sabri Koç Ankara: Middle East Technical University, 1988. 437-52.
Verhoeven, Ludo T., and Hendrik E. Boeschoten. "First Language Acquisition in a Second Language Environment." Applied Psycholinguistics 7: 241-56, 1986.
Verhoeven, Ludo T., and Anne Vermeer. "Ethnic Group Differences in Children's Oral Proficiency of Dutch." Ethnic Minorities and Dutch as a Second Language. Eds. Guus Estra and Ton Vallen. Dordrecht, Holland: Foris Publications, 1985. 105-32.
Wiley, Terrence G. "The Imposition of World War I Era English-Only Policies and the Fate of German in North America." Language and Politics in the United States and Canada. Ed. Thomas Ricento and Barbara Burnaby. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1998. 211-41.
____. "Comparative Historical Analysis of U.S. Language Policy and Language Planning: Extending the Foundations." Sociopolitical Perspectives on Language Policy and Planning in the USA. Ed. Tom Huebner and Kathryn A. Davis. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 1999. 17-37.
____. "Continuity and Change in the Function of Language Ideologies in the United States." Ideology, Politics, and Language Policies: Focus on English . Ed. Thomas Ricento. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 2000. 67-85.
____. "Accessing Language Rights in Education: A Brief History of the U.S. Context." Language Policies in Education: Critical Readings. Ed. James W. Tollefson. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2002. 39-64.
Wisniewski, Richard. "The Averted Gaze." Anthropology and Education Quarterly 31.1 (2000): 5-23.
Wong Fillmore, Lily. "A Question for Early-Childhood Programs: English First or Families First?" Education Week 32 - 34 (1991).
____. "When Learning a Second Language Means Losing the First." Early Childhood Research Quarterly 6.3 (1991): 323-46.
Woolard, Kathryn A. "Language Ideology: Issues and Approaches." Pragmatics 2.3 (1992): 235-50.
____. "Introduction: Language Ideology as a Field of Inquiry." Schieffelin, Woolard and Kroskrity 3-47.
____. "Simultaneity and Bivalency as Strategies in Bilingualism." Journal of Linguistic Anthropology 8.1 (1999): 3-29.
Woolard, Kathryn A., and Bambi Schieffelin. "Language Ideology." American Review of Anthropology 23 (1994): 55-82.
Zelasko, Nancy F. The Bilingual Double Standard: Mainstream Americans' Attitudes toward Bilingualism. Diss. Georgetown University, 1991.
1. We are grateful to the University of Maryland for supporting this meeting and to the organizers of the conference, the Center for Applied Linguistics and the National Foreign Language Center, for facilitating meeting arrangements. In particular, the conributions of Scott McGinnis, Catherine Ingold, and Joy Peyton were greatly appreciated. We also extend our thanks to Kay Moon, of the University of Maryland, College Park, who served as recorder for the meeting and provided a very helpful summary of the discussion.(BACK)
Published: Monday, May 12, 2003
© 2013. The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved.