UCLA students, graduates, and faculty present their research in San Diego on March 4-7, 2004.
Twenty current UCLA students and faculty will presenting papers at the 2004 AAS meeting in San Diego. Four recent UCLA graduates now teaching at other universities will also present their work. In addition eight UCLA faculty and graduates will serve as chairs or discussants for panels. Below we present introductions to the panels and the abstracts of the papers of UCLA presenters. These are drawn from the AAS website.
In addition, the UCLA Asia Institute has organized, in conjunction with the Committee for Teaching about Asia, a pre-conference symposium on effectively utilizing museum and web resources to teach about Asia. This symposium will be held March 4, 2004 at the San Diego Museum of Art. More information about this symposium is available here.
Note: The black and white insert in the image above is taken from a 1915 Panama-California Exposition postcard. The card is of a "nook in the Japanese garden" in San Diego's Balboa Park.
Gwen P. Bennett (Washington University)
Steven P. Day
Theodore D. Huters
Eugenia Y. Lean (Columbia University)
Ronald A. Morse
Mario Poceski (University of Florida)
Miriam R. Silverberg
Min Suh Son
Jung Won Sonn
Lisa Tran (Loyola Marymount University)
Nhung Tuyet Tran
Jennifer A. Winther
Richard von Glahn
J. Vivian Zhan
Lothar von Falkenhausen
Matthew H. Sommer (Stanford University)
Andrew Wedeman (University of Nebraska)
Hon Ming Yip (Chinese University of Hong Kong)
"ROUNDTABLE: Reconceptualizations: Late Qing China"
The late Qing period (c.1880-1912) saw Chinese engaged in a fundamental reappraisal of their world, arguably on a scale comparable to that of the Warring States and Song periods much earlier.
This roundtable assembles scholars of the period from a variety of backgrounds to engage in and provoke discussion of the lexical and conceptual changes taking place during this period. We will examine how late Qing intellectuals, gentry, and urban populations generally rethought existing cultural constructs and created new concepts. We will begin with overviews of the fields of "politics" (Zarrow), "gender" (Judge), "learning" (Lin), "society" (Wong), and "culture" (Huters).
Each speaker will be given no more than ten minutes. Opening remarks will be followed by discussion among the speakers and then the audience. Discussion will not be limited to these keywords, which will simply serve to map its contours.
The objective of this roundtable is to explore different ways that Chinese of the period organized knowledge, perceived the world, and represented power and values in the context of often bewildering transformations. We will not only discuss issues of terminology and translation, but also use keywords as entry points into a range of topics touching on changing social relations, new modes of narrative and performance, modernity, identity, and memory.
While the participants in the roundtable are actively engaged in research on the topics they will present, the roundtable aims to provocatively rethink some of the basic issues in late Qing studies rather than present detailed new scholarship.
Panelists: Joan Judge, University of California, Santa Barbara; Xiaoqing Diana Lin, Indiana University, Northwest; Young-Tsu Wong, Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University; Theodore D. Huters, University of California, Los Angeles; Peter Zarrow, Academia Sinica
"Monastic Codes and the Construction of Religious Identity in Tang and Song China"
The panel explores the evolution of Buddhist and Daoist monasticism and the construction of religious identity in China during the Tang and Song periods, as revealed in the compilation of monastic codes. The Buddhist and Daoist monastic codes are among the most valuable (even if often neglected) sources of information about Chinese religious practices and institutions. The panel’s papers make important contributions to our knowledge of Chinese religious history by exploring key monastic codes that so far have received little scholarly attention. In addition to providing analysis of important texts and relating their creation to larger historical and religious contexts, the panel will contribute to the advancement of Chinese scholarship by exploring avenues for overcoming prevalent tendencies to treat Buddhism and Daoism independently of each other. By jointly presenting papers on Buddhist and Daoist monastic codes, the panel highlights the complex patterns of interaction between the two traditions, and points to ways of exploring parallel developments within both religions as historically conditioned responses to shared socio-religious predicaments. Each paper addresses central issues in the creation of monastic regulations that accompanied the establishment of new religious traditions or the restoration of existing ones, and shows how the codification of monastic life was a central part of efforts to establish distinct religious identity. In each case, the (re)emerging tradition (Tang Daoism and Chan, and Song Tiantai) paid attention to established precedents and absorbed elements of earlier monastic traditions, even as it produced new sets of regulations in response to specific historical predicaments and in accord with newly emerging beliefs and practices.
This paper examines the emergence of Chan monastic regulations and the character of Chan’s participation in the ongoing evolution of Chinese Buddhist monasticism. It focuses on a text entitled "Teacher’s regulations" (Shi guizhi), the earliest extant Chan monastic code, whose author Xuefeng Yicun (822–908) was a leading Chan teacher during the final decades of the Tang dynasty. Xuefeng’s rules addressed select issues that were important for creating conditions conducive to the successful functioning of his monastery. Their function was primarily to supplement other monastic regulations by providing concise guidelines on a narrow range of issues and there is no indication that they were written for a distinct "Chan monastery."
Chan is typically characterized as an iconoclastic tradition that rejected traditional monastic mores and regulations. In the course of its alleged drive for institutional independence, Chan is said to have replaced the Vinaya with its own system of monastic rules and practices that reflected its new religious ethos. The emergence of putative "Chan monasticism," according to such interpretations, was among the culminating events in the protracted Sinification of Buddhism. Xuefeng’s rules and other Tang documents counter normative views about Chan’s establishment of an independent monastic system. They indicate that during the late Tang period Chan was an integral part of the Buddhist mainstream rather than a rebellious movement that rejected established institutions and subverted conventional norms of religious life. The ongoing transformation of monasticism was a gradual process and Chan monks participated in it from within rather than from outside of the established monastic traditions.
"War and Modernity: Remapping Chinese Resistance Aesthetics and Politics, 1937-1945"
Recent scholarship has largely neglected Chinese wartime (1937-1945) resistance literature, society, and culture, lavishing attention instead on civilizational encounters and the primarily Shanghai-based international modernism of the 1920s and early 1930s. Whereas existing research in the field has often harbored suspicions of a regressive "over politicization and nationalization" of wartime culture, this panel approaches the issue of "resistance" with a revised understanding of modernity, calling into question the standard view of the war as simply a crisis of national sovereignty. Our papers envision the war as a radical departure for Chinese conceptions of modernity that impacted cultural perceptions and aesthetic choices as well as ideological and socio-political practices. This is a modernity in which a devastated national landscape, mass dislocation of people and institutions, and constant assault on bodily senses and boundaries posed by technologies of destruction gave rise both to traumatic experiences and utopian impulses. In other words, the experience of war brought forth alternative visions of state and society, stimulating reconfigurations of corresponding social, geographical, and cultural imaginaries. To better understand how political and aesthetic practices constituted themselves in such a reconfiguration, our panel explores wartime modernity through historical, literary, and cinematic perspectives.
To these ends, Edna Tow focuses attention on the wartime capital of Chongqing to explore the legitimating practices of the Nationalist state as it sought to consolidate the body politic around a new conception of nation and citizen. Weihong Bao introduces wartime Chongqing cinema as a transformative moment for cinematic aesthetics and spectatorship that remains highly relevant to post-1949 "New Chinese Cinema." John Crespi examines a new "soundscape" of modern Chinese literature by pursuing the theoretical issues of voice and sound in wartime poetry recitation. And Steven Day returns to the "national forms" debates as a rethinking of nationhood and modernity in wartime, examining the tensions inherent in the choices of literary forms that could represent a mobilized and "modern China."
This paper examines the implications of the "national forms debates" for rethinking Chinese cultural modernity during the Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945). As an aestheticized marker of cultural identities and sign of what was imagined to represent the "modern" and "traditional," or the "national" and the "cosmopolitan," various possibilities for different literary forms were naturally at the heart of an intense debate over what precisely constituted "national forms" (minzu xingshi) in wartime China. In one of the most sustained and prodigious polemics over culture in the past century, three major camps formed around the following positions: a small minority who advocated folk and traditional forms as the "central source" of national forms; opposing this group, May Fourth stalwarts who rejected in toto any traditional literary heritage as inimical to modernity; and, a vast majority who accepted the use of traditional heritage in the creation of national forms, with the caveat that it be applied critically. Given the rigid configuration of extant "Chinese" forms as "traditional," and exogenous forms as "modern," the challenge for the debaters was to imagine a literary form that could be both "authentically Chinese" and "modern" at once. This tension between the purported universalism of the "modern" and the particularity of national "Chinese" forms—the core problematic of cultural modernity—necessitated a re-imagination of this configuration in ways that could accommodate both the nationalistic exigencies of wartime (popular forms closer to traditional sensibilities for mobilizing rural "masses") and the desire to create a veritable modern Chinese literature that could take its rightful place in the canon of world literature.
"Turtles and Snakes, Melons and Mirrors: Omens in East Asian History"
East Asian politics and religion have always incorporated omens. Scholars have shown, particularly for the Han period, how anomalies from comets to multi-eared grain could be reported, selected, interpreted and manipulated for immediate political purposes: to bolster a dynastic claim, cast doubt on a rival, lobby for a policy, or gain imperial favor. These papers illustrate more complex dynamics of omen-talk in different interpretive communities: the Japanese court at Nara; the Tang Daoist church; the early Ming court; and 18th century Vietnamese elite and populace.
Omens often predicted the future, as Dutton’s Vietnamese believed. Lurie also links omens with temporality: turtles provided era-names. But, as scholars have noted, many East Asian omens are not simple prognostications of the future, but responses to current events, such as imperial actions. It is events that determine the future the omens signal. But once omens are reported and interpreted, they themselves may change the future. Who contributes to that intervention and how? In Lurie’s paper, the court and its diviners and ideologues used omens to shore up the legitimacy of the state and its rulers, frequently incorporating them into the official calendar that both reflected and affected the cosmos. Fried shows Daoist clerics routinizing omen production to consolidate control by reducing the specificity of divine messages that might subvert hierarchy. Schneewind shows officials and emperor tussling over interpretation of an omen submitted by a commoner, thereby presenting differing visions of imperial, ministerial, and popular roles. Dutton shows all levels of society using talk about anomalies to debate—and affect—elite politics and popular movements. Bickford volunteered to be discussant because her work in progress, "The Shape of Good Fortune: Auspicious Visuality in China," centers on visualizations of auspicious omens in Song, Ming, and late Qing.
Omens have long had a prominent place in Vietnamese society, especially during periods of political or social upheaval. In the eighteenth century, which saw major popular uprisings and changes of political fortune at the centers of power, we find extensive reporting of omens as portents of change. The many omens reported and discussed at both the elite and popular levels in this period included both meteorological and astronomical phenomena (powerful storms, earthquakes, and bright comets) and the mysterious appearance of sacred items and animals, including animal statues that came to life and snakes and turtles carrying swords. Vietnamese of the period understood these signs as they occurred, and later scholars explained them in hindsight, as portending changes of dynasty or the rise and fall of particular political figures or as divine punishment for acts of desecration or impiety.
This paper will explore the forms and meanings of omens in eighteenth-century Viet Nam and their significance for history and historiography. First, it will discuss how omens were recognized and interpreted by the elite and the populace, suggesting new ways to think about both popular and elite thought through the social and political upheaval of this era. Second, the paper will trace the historical antecedents and discuss the nineteenth-century historiography of these phenomena. Finally, the paper will consider what contemporary interpretations of omens tell us about how the Vietnamese people understood their relationship to nature generally and to the world of sacred and profane creatures more specifically.
"New Insights from Old Tombs: How Archaeological Discoveries Are Transforming Our Understanding of Early Chinese Intellectual Life"
Organizer and Chair: Lothar von Falkenhausen, University of California, Los Angeles
"Reading Vietnamese Literary, Religious, and Social History through Nôm Texts: Sponsored by the Vietnamese Studies Group"
In every national history, certain features embody that country’s unique cultural heritage. In the literature on Vietnam, the emergence and use of a vernacular demotic script (nôm) since the medieval period has become a key signifier of contemporary national identity. While the script has been reified as a sign of proto-national greatness, most historical research (in any language) only makes use of classical Chinese or French sources, silencing vernacular perspectives present in the nôm sources. The papers lift local voices from the historical record by reading early modern Vietnamese literary, religious, and social history through nôm texts.
This panel challenges contemporary constructions of Vietnamese history through local narratives. Dr. Thi An Tran’s paper provides the theoretical background to exploring Vietnamese history and literature by examining how literary figures are transformed into cultic heroes. Dr. Thuân’s uses vernacular literature to trace the cultural, religious, and social transformations of the Le-Trinh period, particularly the revival of Buddhist practices and emergence of Christianity. Tran’s paper builds on Thuân’s findings by exploring the vernacularization of Buddhist and Christian feminine virtuousness, emerging from Trinh family support, in the seventeenth century. Finally, Nam Nguyen’s paper turns the narrative of religious transmission on its head by tracing the story of Lady Vu from forsaken wife to proto-national heroine to transnational cultic deity. His meticulous research demonstrates that traditional narratives of Vietnamese folk religious practices transcend regional and national boundaries. These four papers, all grounded in sources written in the demotic script, present rich [re]readings of local experience in Vietnamese history. While the first two papers revise the conceptual paradigms in Vietnamese history and literature, the second two explore the gendered dynamics of religious practice and transmission in the "Vietnamese context." They explore the links between language, text, and historical processes and provide a nuanced picture of early modern Vietnamese society.
Literature describing Buddhist and Christian practices in early modern Vietnamese society often notes the feminine character of practice but seldom addresses the links between the two. This paper explores the relationship between text, language, and religious experience by examining how Vietnamese monks and local and foreign missionaries retold stories of feminine virtue to their gendered audiences. The Buddhist narratives of Quan Âm Thi Kính and Nam Hai Quan Âm, feminine "Vietnamese" incarnations of the Avelokitesvara, and the feminine representations of saints in the Majorca and Philipê\r Binh documents serve as the two genres of writing to be explored.
The stories from Buddhist texts emerged out of a religious revivalism of the seventeenth century and detail stories of virtuous women who protect their female followers. The two incarnations, the Thousand Arm Buddha and the Mother Offering a Child, embody the hopes of sonless Vietnamese Buddhist faithful. Stories of virtuous feminine Catholic saints likewise appealed to female converts, whose adoption of Christian notions of an afterlife for all presented hopes for their spirits to survive. The paper attempts to determine how the two genres of writing influenced one another and why such texts (which were read to their audiences) resonated with the lives of the faithful.
Rubbings of stele inscriptions from Buddhist temples and Catholic burial grounds and ethnographic observations from local and European observers will be used to illuminate the religious texts. Research for this paper was performed in archives in H?Noi, Paris, and Rome.
"Material Culture and Sensibility in China: The Cultural Life of Things"
This set of papers derives from a collaborative and interdisciplinary research project, organized under the auspices of the Institute of Modern History, Academia Sinica, focused on the study of Chinese material culture. The project, which has involved a dozen scholars from the disciplines of history, literature, and anthropology, has begun with the premise that the social significance of material culture is generated by the interaction of people with the tangible objects of the world around them. Objects that have an existence independent of the culture that appropriates them provide especially illuminating cases of how the processes of appropriation and domestication produce new cultural signs and values. Thus, each of these papers begins with an "alien" object—wild insects, foreign money, imported antiques—and shows how the particular physical characteristics of the object acquired cultural meaning through its incorporation into the humdrum routines of everyday social life. These papers also demonstrate that while material culture remains imbedded in contingent historical experience, the authenticating processes of culture and memory generate traditions of using "things" that acquire lives of their own.
Both the physical qualities of different types of money and the cultural values assigned to them contributed to the determination of their economic value. European silver coins had begun to circulate in China as early as the sixteenth century, but it was around 1800 that a foreign coin, the 8-real coin issued by the Spanish king Carlos IV, became the basis of a new monetary standard in China, the yuan. In the nineteenth century, the Carlos IV "dollar" and other European coins served as the principal means of exchange, and the yuan as the standard means of account, in the markets of South China. Consequently Chinese commercial publishers began to issue manuals to help merchants identify and authenticate these foreign coins. In this paper I will utilize these manuals to examine how the physical properties of foreign silver coins influenced their market value, regional variations in money use, and the ways in which merchant knowledge was circulated and reproduced. These manuals demonstrate significant differences in coin usage between Jiangnan and Guangdong, the major commercial centers of the empire. While Guangdong reverted to a commodity money standard that allowed the use of a wide range of different types of physical monies, including "chopped" (luyin) and broken (lanban) foreign coins, in Jiangnan the Carlos IV dollar became a unified, "sovereign" monetary standard. This regional variation attests to the distinctive regional characteristics of market culture in late imperial China.
"Cultural Interactions in Neolithic/Bronze Age China"
Archaeological discoveries in China during the last two decades have added new dimensions to studying the formation of Chinese civilization. Contrary to what was previously believed—that Chinese culture was conceived and developed exclusively within the Chinese Central Plain—scientific data have now testified that the early cultures in the heartland of China had exchanged ideas with regional centers in peripheral areas once regarded as cultural backwater. Moreover, studies of Chinese archaeological finds also suggest that these regional cultures played active roles in the evolution of Chinese civilization. The authors in this panel will analyze the finds from sites in both Shang/Zhou domain and regional centers, and discuss interactions among/between these sites or cultural areas. Through examining technical, artistic, and ideological traits reflected on the artifacts from early Chinese sites, the authors will interpret the factors and mechanism that have led to cultural communications in China during the Bronze Age.
Lacking the texts that are one of the sources of primary evidence for the study of cultural interaction in Bronze Age China, cultural interaction in the Neolithic period has been approached primarily through ceramic studies. Pottery, due to its rapid response rate to cultural change, has been used to build regional chronologies, as well as to identify different cultural groups and their interaction. Because of its ubiquity and quantity on Neolithic sites, its traditional and continuing utility for dating, and its easy accessibility for the application of low-tech analytical techniques, pottery has received overwhelming amounts of research. However, this concentrated focus on one class of material culture can introduce bias to our interpretations of the past, and archaeological accounts built on analyses of other materials, in addition to pottery, can provide more comprehensive understandings. Lithics are another abundant and easily accessible data source for these studies that should be used to advantage. This paper will first look at the issue of lithics and cultural interaction, and then specifically examine stone tool and ornament data from the Yangtze River corridor to make some preliminary conclusions about Neolithic period cultural interaction within this large region.
"New Wine in Old Bottles: Alternative Chinese Lyric Modernities"
In order to challenge the May Fourth view of the death of classical language and call attention to scholarly neglect of the various ways in which Chinese writers confronted their own tradition, this panel will examine the transformation of classical-style poetry in twentieth-century China and its complex relationship with modern and contemporary culture. Jon von Kowallis, Nanxiu Qian and Shengqing Wu’s papers will reveal the innovative practice of shi and ci genres by leading poets Chen Sanli, Xue Shaohui and LuBicheng, arguing that classical forms, capable of articulating modern consciousness, were notably adaptable to drastically changing circumstances. Filling old bottles with new wine, as it were, Chen, Xue and L?s composing the lyric with traditional poetic forms represented an alternative path to the excesses of the vernacular movement during the early stages of China’s literary modernization. Both Haoming Liu and Joseph Allen’s papers will consider the issue of how vernacular writers Fei Ming and Gu Cheng re-appropriated the classical poetic tradition and engaged in dynamic experiments with different forms. Their papers suggest that classical lyricism has exerted a significant influence, or "cast a long shadow" in Allen’s term, on modern and contemporary literature by offering cultural identity and continuity as well as a source of anxiety.
The legacy of the Chinese lyric tradition compels us to re-evaluate the role of tradition—itself constantly redefined—in a modern context and its imbricated relationship with "translated modernity," which valorized Westernized, vernacular prose forms. We hope that these papers will stimulate debates about the marginalized discourse of classical-style poetry in modern times—debates that, we believe, will fundamentally challenge the supposed universal development of literary modernity according to the strictures of Western literary paradigms.
This paper examines the problem of how to represent foreign landscapes in classical-style poetry, a problem that confronted many Chinese intellectuals in the early twentieth century. This long list includes such influential figures as Kang Youwei, Wang Jingwei, Chen Yinke, Qian Zhongshu and Wu Mi. L?Bicheng (1883-1943), a distinguished ci lyric poet and feminist activist in her time, achieved the peak of her poetic creativity during her long sojourn in Switzerland roughly from 1926 to 1933. Her marvelous and extensive descriptions of European landscapes, of the Alps in particular, constituted an entirely new topology in Chinese poetic history. This paper argues that, through the very act of translation, the Alps, the ruins of Rome, and the cultural sites of Paris—all of which derived greatly from their origins—were creatively deployed in L?s ci poetry to highlight her border-crossing experiences and to map out cross-cultural spaces. This paper will also probe the role that gender played during a translation process that demands vital imagination and considerable poetic creativity.
L?s writing intertwined the politics of space, gender, and language of her time. Through innovative and significant participation in the formation of modern literary practice that expanded aesthetic space and female consciousness, L?s poetry persuasively demonstrated the resilience and adaptability of old forms in the face of new, modern realities.
"The Role of Grammar in Language Instruction: New Perspectives on Teaching Japanese: Sponsored by the Association of Teachers of Japanese (ATJ)"
The way that languages are taught has greatly changed over the past decades. Japanese is no exception. The focus of language instruction has shifted from a grammar-oriented approach to a more context- and/or communication-oriented approach. Developing communication ability has come to be more emphasized over teaching discrete grammar structures of the language. Accordingly, more context-oriented practice has taken over the dialogue memorization or structural drill practice. The linkage of culture and language teaching has received more interest and attention, although there has been relatively little agreement made on how to link them.
In spite of different approaches to language teaching, it is still undeniable that learners need to learn the grammar of the target language. This panel aims to explore various methods of grammar instruction in Japanese. Focusing on grammar instruction, four panelists will discuss their approach to language teaching from different perspectives. The panel addresses the theoretical issue of grammar instruction from the perspectives of (1) sociolinguistic approach, (2) the linkage of culture and grammar instruction, (3) cognitive approach to language teaching, and (4) proficiency approach to language teaching. Each panelist will address theoretical issues related to each perspective and then will make pedagogical suggestions about grammar instruction, teaching materials, and curriculum in general. The panel will also invite the audience to participate in the discussion.
Conditional sentences have typically been analyzed in terms of the domain of truth and inference. Yet our research (e.g., Akatsuka 1991, Akatsuka and Clancy 1993, Clancy, Akatsuka and Strauss 1997, Akatsuka and Strauss 2000) has shown that natural language conditionals are also important devices for encoding the speaker’s affect. The relevant notions are the desirability/undesirability of the action, state, or event in question rather than the logician’s notion of true vs. false.
The first empirical support for our desirability-based analysis comes from Japanese and Korean two-year olds. They begin to use conditionals one year earlier than children who are speakers of familiar European languages, including English (Akatsuka and Clancy 1993).
In Japanese and Korean, an extremely common way of giving orders and prohibitions, "Do X/Don’t do X," is to use deontic conditionals in which the speaker’s evaluation of the antecedent as desirable or undesirable is coded in a semantically transparent fashion in the consequent clause (e.g., dame ‘is no good’ [Japanese], antway ‘won’t do’ [Korean]). All the Japanese and Korean children in our data used deontic conditionals first and then proceeded to use regular conditionals.
"Revisioning Colonial Modernity in Korea"
The productive power of colonialism raises the questions of how Korean people perceived and shaped themselves as both "modern" and "Korean." While acknowledging Japanese colonial domination, this panel aims to take a different path by presenting specific ways in which the Japanese colonial situation created social and political possibilities for the construction of a new subjectivities. These three papers explore the construction of new political consciousness in colonial Korea through the conflicts, tensions, and negotiations around issues of modernity, nationalism, and gender identities.
Labor history is essential to the study of non-elites in modern Korean society. Yet Korean labor history of the colonial period has focused predominantly on the first generations of male and female factory workers. My paper examines two other groups of working women—kisaeng (courtesans) and haenyo (diver women). Although their occupations may have been old-fashioned, they nonetheless demonstrated a modern labor consciousness in their organization of labor groups and strikes.
For example, the 1929 kisaeng strikes show how they used modern strategies to address their grievances. And their magazine, Changhan (Lasting Regret, 1927), illustrates an attempt to disseminate their views through a modern medium.
On Cheju Island, the Cheju haenyo oop chohap (Cheju Diving Women’s Fisheries Cooperative) was established to help divers, but it failed because of colonial restrictions on divers?economic activities. The diver women responded by organizing a January 1932 strike with 3,381 participants, accounting for 42% of all divers on Cheju.
Although labor activism has often been politicized, it is not necessarily evidence of fervent nationalism or class consciousness. While we cannot overlook nationalist sentiment and the growing appeal of leftist ideologies, my premise is that working women were more motivated by everyday concerns such as fair pay and improved work conditions. Furthermore, by examining ways in which kisaeng and haenyo used modern means to deal with work issues, we can gain insight into the larger picture of how women negotiated modern gender identities.
"Globalizing Vietnam: Transnational Work, Gender, and Sexuality"
First, we examine impacts of macroeconomic changes and consequences on people’s livelihoods, poverty levels, and the rising gap between the rich and the poor with sensitivity to regional differences. We analyze how rural workers migrated to the cities searching for jobs with further market integration and globalization. Second, we analyze ways in which the sexuality of female adolescents in a Vietnamese rural village is constructed under global forces with effects that may lead these young women to transgress expected moral limits. Third, we investigate the transformations of family relations between rural daughters and their parents when these young unmarried women are employed in global garment production. Fourth, we examine the effects of the global sub-contracting system, as they transcend national boundaries of Vietnam and the U.S., on garment workers (in Vietnam) and Vietnamese American electronic workers (in California), both on the factory floor and at home.
"The Reporter, the Plaintiff, and the Defendant: Women and Law in Republican China"
Chair: Ann Waltner, University of California, Los Angeles
Discussant: Matthew H. Sommer, Stanford University
To their framers, the Republican legal codes represented everything the Qing code was not. Patterned after European models, the civil and criminal codes created a "modern" legal system based on Western ideals and practice. But how different was Republican law from its late imperial predecessor? In what ways did they diverge? To what extent did Qing legal conceptions and practices persist? Finally, how did this influence and reshape the "modern" nature of Republican law?
In answering these questions, the three papers in this panel look to the media and the courtroom. Analyzing the publications of female reporters and editors, Yuxin Ma’s paper discusses the nature and impact of the public discourse on women’s newfound rights in property and inheritance as guaranteed by the civil code. Shifting from the press room to the courtroom, the next two papers scrutinize local case records to illustrate the law in action. Looking at bigamy cases, Lisa Tran makes the case for the plaintiff, who was in most instances a concubine seeking to take advantage of the new laws to open doors previously closed to her in the Qing. Analyzing homicide cases, Jennifer Neighbors presents the case for the female defendant accused of killing her husband; as these alleged murderesses discovered, the procedural changes accompanying the legal codes more often than not drowned out their cries of innocence. All three papers highlight the tension between persisting Qing views on women and law and the "modern" vision offered by the Republican legal codes.
Beginning in the early Republic, concubinage came under heavy fire from those who considered it a form of male bigamy. Republican lawmakers, however, adamantly refused to recognize concubinage as bigamy. Yet as local case records from the Beijing and Shanghai Municipal Archives reveal, a number of plaintiffs in bigamy suits that resulted in conviction were concubines.
At the center of this apparent contradiction between legal thinking, which distinguished between concubinage and bigamy, and courtroom practice, which occasionally conflated the two, was the ceremony requirement, codified as Article 982 in the Republican civil code. As the litmus test for determining whether a union constituted a marriage, the ceremony requirement enabled a woman socially recognized as a concubine to be legally granted status as a wife, and thus, for concubinage to be convicted as bigamy.
How did the ceremony requirement end up as the legal rationale for adjudicating cases involving concubines as bigamy? Records of bigamy cases suggest that Republican lawmakers?efforts to deny marital status to concubinage by legal fiat clashed with popular perceptions of concubinage, inherited from the Qing, as a form of marriage. For by the Qing, concubines were considered by both law and society as minor wives. It was precisely at this disjuncture between the new legal conception of the concubine as "not a wife" and persisting social perceptions of the concubine as a "minor wife" that a legally savvy concubine found the loophole allowing her to make a legal claim to wife status and convict her husband of bigamy. What had been impossible in the Qing now became very possible in the Republic.
In March of 1929, Cheng Funian took Cheng Zhangshi, 19 sui at the time, as his bride. Within months, following several torturous days of stomach cramps, vomiting, and diarrhea he was dead. Cheng Zhangshi was arrested soon thereafter and accused of the poisoning death of her husband. For the next three years Cheng Zhangshi’s case wound its way through the Republican criminal courts. Accusations flew back and forth between the accused and her husband’s family, and expert witnesses were called to testify time and again, before eventually Cheng Funian’s death was ruled a natural one and Cheng Zhangshi was exonerated.
Cheng Zhangshi’s story was far from unique as Republican-era lawmakers instituted changes in the methods of procedure for criminal trials. In the most notable break with Qing procedure, Republican courts did not require a confession to obtain a conviction. This meant that in the eyes of the court, the testimony of the many could outweigh the persistent and consistent denials of young, female defendants. In a second break, also related to testimony, the procurator’s office began to rely on a new arsenal of prosecutorial weapons, especially the use of expert medical testimony. This, too, was not necessarily good news for the defendants as the testimony of this new group of expert witnesses often became the deciding factor in a case. As a result, the methods of criminal procedure in the Republican courts—promoted as more rational and objective than the techniques of the past—were used to re-assert continuing norms of suspicion against young female defendants accused of murder.
"Culture as Transgression in Postwar Japan"
This panel brings together scholars working in three disciplines (literature, history, and film). It focuses on the construction and representation of the historical memory of war and empire in different cultural forms, as well as their relation to the transgression of national boundaries as a defining rubric for cultural practice. Serk-Bae Suh’s paper examines the national literature debates in postwar Japan and relates them to the prewar debates on the role of Korean literature within such a framework. While postwar literary history is predicated on the concept of a national literary practice, this paper shows that the formation of the concept of national literature was implicated in a history of colonial discourse that was subsequently obscured. Michael Baskett’s paper examines contemporary cinema as a site of production and repository for memories of Japanese empire, and analyzes the relationship between the concept of transnationalism on the level of content (in the form of empire) and its significance on the level of production. Miriam Silverberg examines the striking, cartoon-like work of contemporary artist Nara Yoshitomo with a focus on its critique of nationalist discourse and its transnational reception.
This paper will examine the debates on national literature in the immediate postwar period in Japan. By reading them in conjunction with texts of the prewar national literature debates I intend to reveal the colonial connections embedded yet suppressed in the discourse on national literature. The paper also exposes the operations of colonialism, which polices the borderline between colonizer and colonized, and that of nationalism, which works to configure and reconfigure the boundaries of the nation.
While raising strident voices against the colonial presence of the U.S. in Japan as well as in East Asia, Japanese leftist intellectuals leading the postwar national literature debates ironically contributed to blurring Japan’s own colonial history. Although they took pains to differentiate their version of nationalism from the prewar right-wing nationalism, which collaborated with the Japanese war efforts against Asia, they adhered to a representation of "Japan" that was premised on the notion of the homogeneous national community. Such a premise was possible only by obscuring the vivid memories of Japan’s own colonial expansion and by ignoring the presence of former colonial subjects in Japan. Rather than making a totalizing criticism of leftist nationalism by simply aligning it with right-wing nationalism, I will attempt to look at the intersections on which the two visions of the nation converged. This examination will offer a critique of the concept of national literature by exposing the collusion between nationalism and colonialism in the discourse on national literature.
In the October 6, 2000, entry in the diary of international cause célèbre Nara Yoshitomo (b. 1969), the artist asked himself whether the adulational crowd at the opening of his show in Krakow perceived his work as kitsch. This query, however, was only of passing concern. Nara’s inability to write as he sat trembling after a visit to Auschwitz the previous day was of much deeper concern to him. Working from the artist’s images and multilingual words, as well as interviews and catalog copy, this presentation examines how culture can in one site be considered kitsch, while at the same time it can be transgressive or co-optive in other locales. It discusses how Nara’s deceptively simple figures of angry little girls, giant girls, and even sculpted Cup Kids, are expressions of his rejection of the parochialism of postmodern Nihonjinron thought. As part of Nara’s discussion of what he terms the seduction of language, he has criticized Tokyo mayor Ishihara Shintaro’s celebration of nationhood.
As part of a new project on intimacy in 20th-century Japan, this talk elaborates on Nara’s critique of Ishihara through a discussion of affect in the Chibi Maruko anime television series, which, like Nara’s work, is globally distributed. While focusing on Nara’s work as transgressive in its historicist treatment of wartime and post-postmodern Japan, as seen in the icon of little girl as kamikaze pilot, it also raises anew questions regarding the relationship between the avant-garde and politics and the difference between resistance and transgression.
"Diverse Visions: The Role of Mass Education in Twentieth-Century China’s Modernization"
Has there been mass education for all in China? During the twentieth century, reformers and government agents have looked to mass education for all, including the underprivileged, women, and minorities, to play a key role in China’s modernization process and have implemented a variety of approaches to achieve their goal. This panel examines the continuities and divergences of different mass-educational modernization programs that were implemented in a variety of heretofore understudied contexts, including the Republican Northeast, Republican-era villages, and a minority university in late-twentieth century Beijing. In addition, this panel questions the degree to which mass education has actually been achieved.
Important actors in mass education programs have been American-educated radical reformers, regional warlords, and state agents. Elizabeth VanderVen conducts a regional study of China’s Northeast where, during the Republican period, reform-minded leaders implemented a surprisingly successful and wide-reaching education program that extended all the way down to the region’s villages. Yusheng Yao examines the little-explored efforts of the rural reconstructionist Tao Xingzhi to merge different strategies, including farming, industrialization, and schooling into a mass education program in the 1930s. Rebecca Clothey takes a close-up look at one facet of contemporary mass education. She provides a case study of Central University for Nationalities in Beijing to examine efforts made by the Chinese Communist government to reach out to minority students by providing them with special opportunities for educational and social advancement.
These diverse efforts to implement mass education across China will shed light on problems, successes, and failures common to modernization efforts across the 1949 divide.
In December 1922, Zhang Zuolin, the military leader of Northeast China, invited the famous American educator, Paul Monroe, to visit him and discuss educational reform. Monroe was extremely impressed with Zhang’s interest in education as well as with his wide-reaching educational reform program extending all the way down to the region’s villages. After Zhang’s son, Zhang Xueliang, succeeded his father as the regional leader in 1927, he continued to develop and build upon what his father had started.
Challenging scholarly preconceptions that the two Zhangs were mere military opportunists, this paper examines their role in implementing mass educational reform in Northeast China from 1916?931. It traces the evolution of their ideas on mass education, examines their concrete implementation, and highlights the shifts that occurred when the younger Zhang took over leadership from his father. When Zhang Zuolin rose to power, he viewed educational reform as a means to cement regional power; his activities, namely establishing schools to inculcate young men with Confucian values and military training, reflected this interest. However, as national events unfolded, the elder Zhang gradually shifted his orientation towards a civil-based mass education program inspired by Western education theories and nationalist sentiment. Zhang Xueliang inherited his father’s interest in educational reform and built upon his ideas to develop his own highly nationalist-based mass educational philosophy. He was inspired to set up "modern" schools at all levels, from university down to village elementary schools. When the Japanese invaded the Northeast in 1931, thousands of schools had been set up across the region.
" Japan’s Entertainment Industry in Global Perspective"
Japan’s cultural strengths and distinctiveness are well documented, but for over a decade the Japanese have been combining culture with digital technology to create an internationally competitive business in the mass arts. The focus of this panel is on what is usually referred to as the entertainment industry or what the Japanese often refer to as pop culture in global perspective.
Specifically, the panel will explore how Japanese visual culture, combined with digital technology, foreign management training, and major U.S. entertainment industry acquisitions, is transforming the Japanese arts scene.
Collectively, the panel probes the issue of Japanese entertainment from several "border-crossing" perspectives and disciplines—the Japanese cultural base for this development (Morse and Napier), the cross-border educational side (Kagon), and the global business and legal perspective (Crabb).
The primary formula for this success has been in linking traditional Japanese image culture with the strong Japanese capability in manufacturing and electronics. But equally important has been the Japanese effort to study and learn from the Hollywood experience.
Tokyo’s strategy for the global entertainment marketplace is in the convergence of digital technology, Japanese aesthetic sensibility, and the mass market for popular culture products. It is based on the synergy of media, entertainment, hardware industries, and merchandise marketing.
The Japanese entertainment industry is culturally important, but it is also big business. In revenue terms, it is about 4?% of GDP or $400?00 billion annually. Digital culture can be thought of as a content industry. It has many segments: motion pictures, manga (comics), anime (animation), video arcade games (machines for malls and shops), computer and console games for the home, cable TV, cell phones, music, toys and character goods, fashion and design, gambling and pachinko, theme parks, and internet games.
Science-fiction author William Gibson argues that "Japan is the global imaginations?default setting for the future." And Douglas Gray, in a Foreign Policy magazine (May/June 2002) article titled "Japan’s Gross National Cool," argues that Japan’s global cultural influence is a new way to measure Japan’s GNP.
It is by drawing on the principles of Japanese traditional visual aesthetics (woodblock prints, calligraphy, painting) and combining them with new technological capabilities (the cell phone, video games, animation) that Tokyo has created a universally attractive digital (techno-aesthetic) cultural industry. This industry has many segments and the Japanese are strong in most of them: motion pictures, manga, animation, video arcade games, computer and console games for the home, cable TV, cell phones, music, toys, character goods, fashion and design, pachinko gambling, theme parks, and Internet games.
Ironically, Japan’s greatest pop culture success has been in the Asian market, traditionally an area resistant to Japanese cultural products.
"Competing Claims of Modernization: Anti-Developmentalism, Industrialization, and Regionalism in 1960’s South Korea"
Since the Park Chung Hee government introduced the first Five-Year Economic Plan in 1962, modernization has been exalted in South Korea as the supreme goal of the nation and the individual. The Park government was the first postcolonial modern state capable of simultaneous and contradictory efforts to emancipate and subjugate its citizenry through the project of modernization. We will explore the divergent processes and practices of the 1960s?development by looking at the nationalists’\r claim of anti-developmentalism (Yang), regionalism (Sonn), and capital control (K. Lee). Woo Jin Yang reexamines the pivotal moments of the 1960s, the April 19th Uprising and May 16th military coup, and provocatively argues that both events, contrary to the claims of nationalist historians as having opposing aims and effects, gave rise to a new kind of nationalist mobilization. Jung Won Sonn argues that regionally unequal industrial policy, despite its origin as a product of a politically authoritarian strategy, was economically rational and was an integral part of South Korean developmentalism. Kangkook Lee’s paper deals with foreign capital management policy in the 1960s and suggests that the state’s capital control was essential to the developmental strategy. Finally, Namhee Lee as a discussant will explore possible theoretical connections between the academic efforts to rethink the 1960s?developmentalism and the contemporary popular discourse and practices of the "Park Chung Hee syndrome," in which nostalgia for the 1960s as a golden era backed by strong state leadership is increasingly gaining support. The diverse disciplinary background of the panel members will bring interdisciplinary insights to the complexities and contradictions of the 1960s?developmentalism.
Regionalism in Korea has been attracting attention from academic communities inside and outside Korea. However, few scholars have attempted to contextualize regionalism in the overall development strategy of the Korean state. This paper analyzes regional policy in the 1960s and its political background so as to show that regionalism was an integral part of the developmentalism in Korea. The beginning of the regionally-uneven strategy was the designation of Special Industrial Estates to which the state provided state-funded infrastructure and tax breaks in 1965 and subsequent years. The Park Administration chose Ku-Ro district, Bu-Pyung district, and Ulsan, places in the capital region and Kyungsang region. The process of designation was authoritarian without social consensus but, economically, they were reasonable choices. Ku-Ro and Bu-Pyung were abundant in low-wage labor for non-durable consumer industries such as the garment and shoe industries, the most feasible candidates for export industries at that time. Ulsan is a seaport close to Japan and had water, electricity, and other necessities for heavy industries. Before a decade passed, these three places attracted numerous businesses and became centers of export economy. Furthermore, these places continued to be important nodes in Seoul-Kyungsang axis of development until the 1990s. This economically rational but politically authoritarian strategy of regionally-biased development was backed by the strong alliance between central political elites and Yung-Nam elites. In the 1960s, President Park, himself from Yung-Nam, shared some of the political power with Kim Sung-Gon and other political elites of Yung-Nam. Elites from other regions, Honam in particular, were excluded from power.
" Japanese Buddhist Art/Objects in Ritual Context "
The study of religious ritual can illuminate and be illuminated by the study of objects and images. In the case of historical research, the relative durability of paraphernalia versus the temporal and performative nature of rituals makes reintegrations of the two a particularly difficult task. Nonetheless, even approximations and tentative reconstructions can shed considerable light. The papers of this panel will each take up a specific rite, or body of rites, and the images and objects connected to them. The overall aim is to present case studies that suggest how a variety of interdisciplinary approaches can illuminate our understanding of the visual and material culture of religious ritual. Yui Suzuki explores the function of Yakushi Buddha images in a Tendai ritual, and Candice F. Kanda argues for the central role played by Amida raigo paintings in Pure Land Buddhist practices espoused by Honen. Karen Gerhart and Gene E. Phillips examine rites concerned with the afterlife. Gerhart addresses the issues of patronage and display of painted memorial portraits in fourteenth-century Japan. Phillips analyzes the paraphernalia, which includes a set of paintings of the Ten Kings of Hell, that was used in a ritual that began in the late tenth century and whose traces can be found in rituals performed nowadays. As a religious historian, the discussant James Dobbins will expand on the papers by offering comparative analysis of methodologies of both religious and art historians and suggest alternative interdisciplinary approaches.
A large number of extant wooden statues of Yakushi (Medicine Master Buddha) from all regions of Japan dated to the Heian period indicate the popularity of this deity during this time. While there are religious and anthropological studies of devotional worship of Yakushi and art historical scholarship on the statuary, they rarely explore the relationship between belief and its imagery. In an effort to reconstruct the ritual context in which sacred icons were used, my paper will focus on the connection between Tendai praxis and Yakushi images. I will first examine the textual history of the Central Hall at Enryakuji and the statues that were once housed there. This important worship hall, first built by the founder of the Tendai school, Saicho (767?22), enshrined a total of ten Yakushi images in the ninth century. Seven of them were conceived as Shichibutsu Yakushi, consisting of Yakushi and its six other manifestations.
By relying on both textual and visual sources, I will explore how these images in the Central Hall were utilized in the esoteric Shichibutsu Yakushi ho (The Rite of the Seven Medicine Master Buddhas) throughout the latter half of the Heian period. During this time, Tendai monks effectively monopolized Yakushi as an efficacious deity for its healing powers as well as for its abilities to provide relief from calamities and to bestow good fortune. This culminated in the patronage of majestic Shichibutsu Yakushi halls and images by members of the imperial family and the nobility.
" Making Headlines: News Reporting, Media Sensation, and Society in China’s Republican-Era Journalism "
This interdisciplinary panel will address the question of what was considered newsworthy, and why, in Republican era journalism. For too long, scholars have tended to treat newspapers as transparent texts or unproblematic primary sources. Historians have long complained that early twentieth-century journalism was too didactic and not objective enough to serve as reliable documents and literature scholars have dismissed Republican-era serialized fiction and news reporting as too trivial or sensational to merit scholarly inquiry. As a result, little thought has been given to how media sensation, didacticism, and "trivial" news items might have played constitutive roles in shaping not just the understanding of "news," but also the modern urban experience and new forms of subjectivity. This panel takes sensation, trivia, and didacticism seriously to argue that these aspects of Republican journalism were critical in defining what was "newsworthy" for modern Chinese society. To this end, Eileen Chow explores the genre of tabloid reporting associated with the rubric "News of Social Life" (shehui xinwen) to identify how generic conventions from "serialized fiction" informed and shaped news about everyday social life. Eugenia Lean conducts an historical investigation of media controversy surrounding crimes of female passion to examine how a news item became a sensation, and how this sensation generated broader social anxiety. Timothy Weston sheds light on intellectual debates over the place of moral didacticism and propaganda in the practice of modern journalism. Historian Bryna Goodman and scholar of modern Chinese literature Catherine Yeh will serve as the panel’s discussants.
In 1935?936, three passionate women splashed across the pages of the Republican-era press. Liu Jinggui murdered her rival in a love triangle, Shi Jianqiao assassinated warlord Sun Chuanfang to avenge the murder of her father, and movie star Ruan Lingyu killed herself because of public scrutiny into her failed marriage. The controversy surrounding these cases focused primarily on whether the female perpetrator’s motive of passion (qing) was excessively destructive and represented a sign of moral decay, or, conversely, represented a form of authentic feeling in a period of deceit and moral treachery. In this paper, I argue that these debates over qing were fueled by broader social anxiety over the deceitfulness of the new media-saturated age.
Scholars have long recognized that forms of mass communication burgeoned to unprecedented heights during the Republican period and often contended that these new forms of media fundamentally changed how news was disseminated, communities were imagined, and leisure was consumed. Yet, what has not been examined systematically is how the news reading public itself felt about the influence of the media. Did anxiety arise regarding the sensational nature of the urban press? Did the fickleness of public sympathy and opinion generated in the realm of mass media cause unease? How did such ambivalence, in turn, become worthy of examination in the media itself? Was this anxiety gendered? In this paper, I contend that controversy surrounding highly public New Women, often media products themselves, became a lightening rod for debate regarding the power of mass communication.
" The Political Economy of Central-Local Relations in Post-Reform China "
Chair: Richard Baum, University of California, Los Angeles
The shifting dynamics of central-local relations has been a highly controversial topic since the advent of China’s post-Mao reforms. At the center of the controversy lies the following question: Has reform-induced fiscal and administrative decentralization eroded the central government’s effective control over provincial and local governments? This panel brings together a group of scholars who have used different methodologies to examine key aspects of central-local relations under the reforms. Dali Yang uses the restructuring of the banking system as a critical lens through which to examine the evolution of central-local relations. This study will provide insight into the viability and prospects of China’s banking system, which remain the Achilles?heels of the Chinese economy. It will also illuminate broader issues of institutional reforms in China. Tingting Zhang evaluates central-local relations from the perspective of the center’s criteria for appointing and dismissing provincial cadres. She tests empirically a number of putative criteria governing promotion/demotion of provincial officials: local economic growth; tax collection; social stability; and personal connections to veteran party leaders. Vivian Zhan constructs a formal model that treats both the central and local governments as strategic players to explain their interactions and to account for the shifting dynamics of fiscal reform. The model suggests that the central government, as the agenda-setter, applies a rational calculus when deciding whether tactically to relinquish or recapture fiscal authority, while local governments take advantage of fiscal reforms to maximize their own benefits. The chair, Richard Baum, and discussant, Andrew Wedeman, have both written extensively on the political economy of central-local relations in post-reform China.
A series of fiscal reforms have taken place in China since the early 1980’s. In the distribution of fiscal revenues, the Chinese central government seems to be giving away an increasing share to local governments, which indicates a weakening state fiscal capacity that many people regard as dangerous. However, it is the central government that has initiated the reforms and has been the vital decision maker in formulating fiscal policies. So why does it allow the diffusion of its fiscal power to lower level governments, and how are local governments able to gain more power in sharing fiscal revenues? This paper constructs a formal model that treats both the central and local governments as strategic players to explain their interaction and to account for what has happened in the fiscal reforms. The model suggests that the central government, as the agenda-setter in the fiscal reforms, takes control of the fiscal power. It gives up or recaptures its power only out of rational calculations. At the same time, the local government also takes advantage of the fiscal system to maximize its own benefits.
Clientalism or Developmentalism? The Political Economy of Promotion/Demotion of Provincial Officials in China
Tingting Zhang, University of California, Los Angeles
Published: Wednesday, February 25, 2004
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